Faculty Profile

Stefanos N. Kales MD, MPH, FACP, FACOEM

Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School
Chief of Occupational and Environmental Medicine and Medical Director for Employee Health and Industrial Medicine, Department of Medicine, Cambridge Health Alliance
Professor and Director of the Occupational and Environmental Medicine Residency, Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

Other Affiliation(s)

HSPH Cardiovascular Epidemiology Program

See publications


Occupational Medicine, Macht Building, Suite 427
Cambridge Hospital, 1493 Cambridge Street
Cambridge, MA 02139

Phone 617-665-1580
Fax 617-665-1672

Email skales@challiance.org
Email skales@hsph.harvard.edu

Society Memberships

American College of Physicians
American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
New England College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
New England Hellenic Medical and Dental Society
Hellenic Medical Society of New York
National Fire Protection Association

Research Interests

I am trained in public health, internal and occupational medicine and have engaged in occupational/environmental scholarship activities on four continents as a clinical researcher, educator and leader. My original research focus has been on firefighters’ health for over 15 years and my group has become one of the most influential regarding cardiovascular disease in firefighters, the leading cause of death in the US fire service. We provided in the New England Journal of Medicine the strongest evidence to date that strenuous work activities can precipitate heart disease events in firefighters with underlying disease. As my work has come to focus on obesity and other cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors, this has led me to collaborate with other scientific groups on various interfaces between environmental and workplace exposures and metabolic health effects, including a cohort study of young adults funded by the Cypriot Research Promotion Foundation; hypertension in public safety workers and sleep disorders in professional drivers and public safety personnel. I am the PI on a $1 million research award from the United States Department of Homeland Security to study future predictors of cardiovascular health in this occupation. I have also been invited by the Harvard Work Hours, Health and Safety Group of the HMS Sleep Division to collaborate on their grant from the same agency regarding sleep and fatigue in firefighters. I am very interested in the effects of sleep hygiene and disorders on metabolic and cardiovascular health, as well as job safety.


Chunbai Zhang MD, MPH, 2007-present
Philip Parks, MD, MPH, 2006-present
Gerardo Durand, MD, 2007- present
Antonios Tsismenakis, MA, 2006-present
Ibe Mbanu, MD, MPH, 2004-2006

Research Funding

2007-2008 Harvard-NIOSH (Pilot project)
“Obesity and Sleep Apnea in Truck Drivers”
Role: Senior Investigator

2007-2009 American College of Occupational & Environmental Medicine; and the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration
“Sleep Apnea Screening and Psychomotor Vigilance Testing in Truck Drivers.”
Role:Senior Investigator/Project Mentor

2007-2010 United States, Department of Homeland Security
“Predicting Cardiovascular Risk and Fitness in Firefighters
Role: PI
Research includes examination of health impacts of sleep hygiene, shift work and symptoms of sleep disorders

2008-2009 Respironics, Incorporated & Occupational and Environmental Health Foundation of the American College of Occupational & Environmental Medicine
“Occupational Physician Survey on New Recommendations for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Screening in Commercial Motor Vehicle (CMV) Operators”
Role: PI

Selected Publications

Kales SN, Tsismenakis AJ. Response to "Obesity and Treadmill Exercise Duration in Hazmat Candidates".
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009 Nov;17(11):1981. [PMID: 19859059]

Durand G, Kales SN. Obstructive sleep apnea screening during commercial driver medical examinations: a survey of ACOEM members.
J Occup Environ Med. 2009 Oct;51(10):1220-6. [PMID: 19786899]

Kales SN, Saper RB. Ayurvedic lead poisoning : An under-recognized, international problem.
Indian J Med Sci. 2009 Sep;63(9):379-81. [PMID:19805916]

Parks PD, Durand G, Tsismenakis AJ, Vela-Bueno A, Kales SN. Screening for Obstructive Sleep Apnea during Commercial Driver Medical Examinations.
J Occup Environ Med. 2009;51:275-282. [PMID: 19280762]

Tsismenakis AJ, Christophi CA, Burress JW, Kinney AM, M Kim, Kales SN. The Obesity Epidemic and Future Emergency Responders.
Obesity. 2009;17: 1648-1650. [PMID: 19300435]

Kales SN, Tsismenakis AJ, Zhang C, Soteriades ES. State of the Art. Blood Pressure in Firefighters, Police Officers, and other Emergency Responders.
Am J Hypertens. 2009; 22:11-20. [PMID: 18927545]

Saper RB, Phillips RS, Sehgal A, Khouri N, Davis RB, Paquin J, Thuppil V, Kales SN. Lead, mercury, and arsenic in US- and Indian-manufactured Ayurvedic medicines sold via the Internet.
JAMA. 2008 Aug 27;300(8):915-23. Erratum in: JAMA. 2008 Oct 8;300(14):1652. [PMID: 18728265]

Soteriades ES, Hauser R, Kawachi I, Christiani DC, Kales SN. Obesity and risk of job disability in male firefighters.
Occup Med (Lond). 2008 Jun;58(4):245-50. Epub 2008 Jan 18. [PMID: 18204003]

Geibe JR, Holder J, Peeples L, Kinney AM, Burress JW, Kales SN. Predictors of on-duty coronary events in male firefighters in the United States.
Am J Cardiol. 2008 Mar 1;101(5):585-9. Epub 2007 Dec 21. [PMID: 18308003]

Abejie BA, Chung EH, Nesto RW, Kales SN. Grand rounds: asbestos-related pericarditis in a boiler operator.
Environ Health Perspect. 2008 Jan;116(1):86-9. [PMID: 18197304]

Durand G, Parks PD, Kales SN. Occupational Medicine Forum: Alleged Daytime Somnolence in a Professional Driver: Approaching the Fitness for Duty Determination.
J Occup Environ Med. 2008;50:1086-1088. [PMID: 18784557]

Kales SN, Christophi CA, Saper RB. Hematopoietic toxicity from lead-containing Ayurvedic medications.
Med Sci Monit. 2007 Jul;13(7):CR295-8. [PMID: 17599022]

Kales SN, Soteriades ES, Christophi CA, Christiani DC. Emergency duties and deaths from heart disease among firefighters in the United States.
N Engl J Med. 2007 Mar 22;356(12):1207-15. [PMID: 17377158]

Mbanu I, Wellenius GA, Mittleman MA, Peeples L, Stallings LA, Kales SN. Seasonality and Coronary Heart Disease Deaths in United States Firefighters.
Chronobiol Int. 2007; 24: 715–26. [PMID: 17701682.]

Holder JD, Stallings LA, Peeples L, Burress JW, Kales SN. Firefighter heart presumption retirements in Massachusetts 1997-2004.
J Occup Environ Med. 2006 Oct;48(10):1047-53. [PMID: 17033504]

Kales SN, Huyck KL, Goldman RH. Elevated urine arsenic: un-speciated results lead to unnecessary concern and further evaluations.
J Anal Toxicol. 2006 Mar;30(2):80-5. [PMID: 16620536]

Kales SN, Lee EC. Pseudo-latex allergy associated with "latex" paint exposure: a potential cause of iatrogenic disability.
J Occup Environ Med. 2006 Jan;48(1):83-8. [PMID: 16404214]


Karri SK, Saper RB, Kales SN. Lead encephalopathy due to traditional medicines.
Curr Drug Saf. 2008 Jan;3(1):54-9. Review. [PMID: 18690981]

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