Faculty Profile

William D. S. Killgore, PhD

Associate Professor of Psychology, Harvard Medical School
Director, Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience (SCAN) Lab, Department of Psychiatry, McLean Hospital

See publications


Center for Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Research, Harvard Medical School, McLean Hospital
115 Mill Street
Belmont, MA 02478

Inter-office Mail Address

Mail Stop #334, McLean Hospital, 115 Mill Street, Belmont, MA 02478

Phone 617-855-3166
Fax 617-855-2770

Email killgore@mclean.harvard.edu

Research Interests

My research has emphasized the study of higher order cognition and executive functions and how these cognitive abilities are influenced and guided by subtle affective processes. Recent sleep-related research has focused on the effects of prolonged sleep deprivation, chronic sleep restriction, and the use of stimulant countermeasures on the cognitive-affective systems within the brain. This line of investigation suggests that sleep deprivation alters the metabolic activity within several important affect-regulating regions of the brain, including the medial prefrontal cortex, resulting in subtle but profound effects on specific aspects of affect and cognition. These changes appear to impair the ability to use affective processes to guide judgment and decision-making, particularly in high-risk or emotionally charged morally relevant situations. My recent investigations also suggest that while commonly used stimulants such as caffeine, modafinil, and dextroamphetamine are highly effective at reversing sleep-loss induced deficits in alertness and vigilance, their restorative effects on the cognitive-affective decision-making systems of the brain may be much more limited.


Daniel Casasanto, Ph.D., 1997-1999
David Glahn, Ph.D., 1997-1999
Rebecca Reichardt, M.A., 2002-2007
Stan Liu, M.D., 2003-2004
Nancy Grugle, Ph.D., 2003-2005
Athena Kendall, M.A., 2003-2006
Lisa Day, M.S.W., 2003-2006
Jessica Richards, M.S., 2004-2007
Erica Lipizzi, M.A., 2004-2007
Amy Conrad, Ph.D., 2005
Nathan Huck, Ph.D., 2005-2006
Ellen Kahn-Greene, Ph.D., 2005-2007
Dante Picchioni, Ph.D., 2005-2007
Tracy Rupp, Ph.D., 2006-2007
Norah Simpson, Ph.D., 2010-2011
Vincent Capaldi, M.D., 2010-2011
Mareen Weber, Ph.D., 2011-present
Elizabeth Olson, Ph.D., 2013-present
Jiaolong Cui, Ph.D., 2013-present


Scott L. Rauch, M.D.
Thomas J. Balkin, Ph.D.
Deborah A. Yurgelun-Todd, Ph.D.
John A. Detre, M.D.
Guila Glosser, Ph.D.
Russell L. Adams, Ph.D.
James G. Scott, Ph.D.
Keith A. Hawkins, Ph.D.
Charles R. Walker, Ph.D.
Bill Locke, Ph.D.
Lawrence Overby, Ph.D.
Steven W. Gangestad, Ph.D.

Research Funding

USAMRAA, PI: William D. S. Killgore, Ph.D., Effects of Bright Light Therapy of Sleep, Cognition, Brain Function, and Neurochemistry in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

USAMRAA, PI: William D. S. Killgore, Ph.D., The Neurobiological Basis and Potential Modification of Emotional Intelligence through Affective / Behavioral Training

DARPA, PI: William D. S. Killgore, Ph.D.
Multimodal Neuroimaging to Predict Cognitive Resilience Against Sleep Loss

USAMRAA, PI: William D. S. Killgore, Ph.D.,
A Model for Predicting Cognitive and Emotional Health from Structural and Functional Neurocircuitry Following Traumatic Brain Injury
USAMRAA, Co-PI: William D. S. Killgore, Ph.D.,
Internet Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Effects on Depressive Cognitions and Brain Function

Selected Publications

Killgore WD, Kipman M, Schwab ZJ, Tkachenko O, Preer L, Gogel H, Bark JS, Mundy EA, Olson EA, Weber M. Physical exercise and brain responses to images of high-calorie food. Neuroreport. 2013 Sep 30. [PMID: 24080950]

Depress Anxiety. 2013 Jul 16. [PMID: 23861215]

Killgore WD, Schwab ZJ, Tkachenko O, Webb CA, DelDonno SR, Kipman M, Rauch SL,
Weber M. Emotional intelligence correlates with functional responses to dynamic changes in facial trustworthiness.
Soc Neurosci. 2013;8(4):334-46. [PMID: 23802123]

Weber M, Killgore WD, Rosso IM, Britton JC, Schwab ZJ, Weiner MR, Simon NM, Pollack MH, Rauch SL. Voxel-based morphometric gray matter correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder.
J Anxiety Disord. 2013 May;27(4):413-9. Epub 2013 Apr 26. [PMID: 23746489]

Thomas JJ, Hartmann AS, Killgore WD. Non-fat-phobic eating disorders: why we need to investigate implicit associations and neural correlates.
Int J Eat Disord. 2013 Jul;46(5):416-9. [PMID: 23658082]

Weber M, Webb CA, Deldonno SR, Kipman M, Schwab ZJ, Weiner MR, Killgore WD. Habitual 'sleep credit' is associated with greater grey matter volume of the medial prefrontal cortex, higher emotional intelligence and better mental health.
J Sleep Res. 2013 Oct;22(5):527-34. [PMID: 23593990]

Killgore WD, Schwab ZJ, Kipman M, Deldonno SR, Weber M. Insomnia-related complaints correlate with functional connectivity between sensory-motor regions.
Neuroreport. 2013 Mar 27;24(5):233-40. [PMID: 23399993]

Killgore WD, Schwab ZJ, Weber M, Kipman M, Deldonno SR, Weiner MR, Rauch SL. Daytime sleepiness affects prefrontal regulation of food intake.
Neuroimage. 2013 May 1;71:216-23. [PMID: 23353029]

Killgore WD, Schwab ZJ. Sex differences in the association between physical exercise and IQ.
Percept Mot Skills. 2012 Oct;115(2):605-17. [PMID: 23265022]

Kipman M, Weber M, Schwab ZJ, DelDonno SR, Killgore WD. A funny thing happened on the way to the scanner: humor detection correlates with gray matter volume.
Neuroreport. 2012 Dec 19;23(18):1059-64. [PMID: 23108043]

Killgore WD, Schwab ZJ, Weiner MR. Self-reported nocturnal sleep duration is associated with next-day resting state functional connectivity.
Neuroreport. 2012 Sep 12;23(13):741-5. [PMID: 22872066]

Killgore WD, Weber M, Schwab ZJ, Deldonno SR, Kipman M, Weiner MR, Rauch SL. Gray matter correlates of Trait and Ability models of emotional intelligence.
Neuroreport. 2012 Jun 20;23(9):551-5. [PMID: 22546702]

Killgore WD, Schwab ZJ, Kipman M, DelDonno SR, Weber M. Voxel-based morphometric gray matter correlates of daytime sleepiness.
Neurosci Lett. 2012 Jun 14;518(1):10-3. [PMID: 22542893]

Killgore WD, Capaldi VF 2nd, Guerrero ML. Nocturnal polysomnographic correlates of daytime sleepiness.
Psychol Rep. 2012 Feb;110(1):63-72. [PMID: 22489378]

Gruber SA, Dahlgren MK, Sagar KA, Gönenc A, Killgore WD. Age of onset of  marijuana use impacts inhibitory processing.
Neurosci Lett. 2012 Mar  9;511(2):89-94. Epub 2012 Jan 24. [PMID: 22306089]  

Killgore WD, Grugle NL, Balkin TJ. Gambling when sleep deprived: don't bet onstimulants.
Chronobiol Int. 2012 Feb;29(1):43-54. [PMID: 22217100] 

Capaldi VF 2nd, Guerrero ML, Killgore WD. Sleep disruptions among returning  combat veterans from Iraq and Afghanistan.
Mil Med. 2011 Aug;176(8):879-88.  [PMID: 21882777]

Killgore WD, Britton JC, Price LM, Gold AL, Deckersbach T, Rauch SL. Neural  correlates of anxiety sensitivity during masked presentation of affective faces.
Depress Anxiety. 2011 Mar;28(3):243-9. [PMID: 21308886]

Rosso IM, Makris N, Britton JC, Price LM, Gold AL, Zai D, Bruyere J,  Deckersbach T, Killgore WD, Rauch SL. Anxiety sensitivity correlates with two  indices of right anterior insula structure in specific animal phobia. Depress 
Anxiety. 2010 Dec;27(12):1104-10. [PMID: 21132846]  

Rupp TL, Killgore WD, Balkin TJ. Socializing by Day May Affect Performance byNight: Vulnerability to Sleep Deprivation is Differentially Mediated by Social  Exposure in Extraverts vs Introverts.
Sleep. 2010 Nov;33(11):1475-85. [ PMID: 21102989]

21: Killgore WD. Effects of sleep deprivation on cognition.
Prog Brain Res.  2010;185:105-29. Review. [PMID: 21075236]

Killgore WD, Castro CA, Hoge CW. Preliminary normative data for the Evaluation  of Risks Scale-Bubble Sheet Version (EVAR-B) for large-scale surveys of returning  combat veterans.
Mil Med. 2010 Oct;175(10):725-31. [PMID: 20968261]

Killgore WD, Kamimori GH, Balkin TJ. Caffeine protects against increased  risk-taking propensity during severe sleep deprivation.
J Sleep Res. 2011  Sep;20(3):395-403. [PMID: 20946437]  

Britton JC, Rauch SL, Rosso IM, Killgore WD, Price LM, Ragan J, Chosak A,  Hezel DM, Pine DS, Leibenluft E, Pauls DL, Jenike MA, Stewart SE. Cognitive  inflexibility and frontal-cortical activation in pediatric obsessive-compulsive  disorder.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010 Sep;49(9):944-53. Epub 2010  Jun 29. [PMID: 20732630]  

Killgore WD, Grugle NL, Killgore DB, Balkin TJ. Sex differences in  self-reported risk-taking propensity on the Evaluation of Risks scale.
Psychol  Rep. 2010 Jun;106(3):693-700. [PMID: 20712157]

Killgore WD, Kelley A, Balkin TJ. So you think you're bulletproof:  Development and validation of the Invincibility Belief Index (IBI).
Mil Med. 2010  Jul;175(7):499-508. [PMID: 20684454]

Britton JC, Stewart SE, Killgore WD, Rosso IM, Price LM, Gold AL, Pine DS,  Wilhelm S, Jenike MA, Rauch SL. Amygdala activation in response to facial  expressions in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Depress Anxiety. 2010  Jul;27(7):643-51. [PMID: 20602430]

Killgore WD, Killgore DB, Grugle NL, Balkin TJ. Odor identification ability  predicts executive function deficits following sleep deprivation.
Int J Neurosci.  2010 May;120(5):328-34. [PMID: 20402570]  

Killgore WD, Yurgelun-Todd DA. Cerebral Correlates of Amygdala Responses  During Non-Conscious Perception of Facial Affect in Adolescent and Pre-Adolescent  Children.
Cogn Neurosci. 2010 Mar 1;1(1):33-43. [PMID: 20200600]

Killgore WD, Yurgelun-Todd DA. Sex differences in cerebral responses to  images of high versus low-calorie food.
Neuroreport. 2010 Mar 31;21(5):354-8.  [PMID: 20173665]

Killgore WD, Lipizzi EL, Grugle NL, Killgore DB, Balkin TJ. Handedness  correlates with actigraphically measured sleep in a controlled environment. 
Percept Mot Skills. 2009 Oct;109(2):395-400. [PMID: 20037993]

Picchioni D, Killgore WD, Balkin TJ, Braun AR. Positron emission tomography  correlates of visually-scored electroencephalographic waveforms during non-RapidEye Movement sleep.
Int J Neurosci. 2009;119(11):2074-99. [PMID: 19863262]

Killgore WD, Rosso IM, Gruber SA, Yurgelun-Todd DA. Amygdala volume and  verbal memory performance in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Cogn Behav  Neurol. 2009 Mar;22(1):28-37. [PMID: 19372768]  

Killgore WD, Ross AJ, Kamiya T, Kawada Y, Renshaw PF, Yurgelun-Todd DA.  Citicoline affects appetite and cortico-limbic responses to images of  high-calorie foods.
Int J Eat Disord. 2010 Jan;43(1):6-13. [PMID: 19260039]  

Killgore WD, Kahn-Greene ET, Grugle NL, Killgore DB, Balkin TJ. Sustaining  executive functions during sleep deprivation: A comparison of caffeine,  dextroamphetamine, and modafinil.
Sleep. 2009 Feb;32(2):205-16. [PMID:  19238808]

Killgore WD, Grugle NL, Reichardt RM, Killgore DB, Balkin TJ. Executive  functions and the ability to sustain vigilance during sleep loss.
Aviat Space  Environ Med. 2009 Feb;80(2):81-7. [PMID: 19198192]

Killgore WD, Yurgelun-Todd DA. The right-hemisphere and valence hypotheses:  could they both be right (and sometimes left)?
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2007  Sep;2(3):240-50. [PMID: 18985144]

Killgore WD, Muckle AE, Grugle NL, Killgore DB, Balkin TJ. Sex differences in  cognitive estimation during sleep deprivation: effects of stimulant  countermeasures.
Int J Neurosci. 2008 Nov;118(11):1547-57. [PMID: 18853333] 

Killgore WD, Gruber SA, Yurgelun-Todd DA. Abnormal corticostriatal activity  during fear perception in bipolar disorder.
Neuroreport. 2008 Oct  8;19(15):1523-7. [PMID: 18797310; [Central PMCID: PMC2667943]

Killgore WD, Grugle NL, Killgore DB, Leavitt BP, Watlington GI, McNair S,  Balkin TJ. Restoration of risk-propensity during sleep deprivation: caffeine,  dextroamphetamine, and modafinil.
Aviat Space Environ Med. 2008 Sep;79(9):867-74.  [PMID: 18785355]

Killgore WD, McBride SA, Killgore DB, Balkin TJ, Kamimori GH. Baseline odor  identification ability predicts degradation of psychomotor vigilance during 77  hours of sleep deprivation.
Int J Neurosci. 2008 Sep;118(9):1207-25. [PMID:  18698505]  

Killgore WD, Yurgelun-Todd DA. Unconscious processing of facial affect in  children and adolescents.
Soc Neurosci. 2007;2(1):28-47. [PMID: 18633805]  

Killgore WD, Rupp TL, Grugle NL, Reichardt RM, Lipizzi EL, Balkin TJ. Effects  of dextroamphetamine, caffeine and modafinil on psychomotor vigilance test  performance after 44 h of continuous wakefulness.
J Sleep Res. 2008  Sep;17(3):309-21. Epub 2008 Jun 2. [PMID: 18522689]  

Killgore WD, Kahn-Greene ET, Killgore DB, Kamimori GH, Balkin TJ. Effects ofacute caffeine withdrawal on Short Category Test performance in sleep-deprived  individuals.
Percept Mot Skills. 2007 Dec;105(3 Pt 2):1265-74. [PMID:  18380127]

Huck NO, McBride SA, Kendall AP, Grugle NL, Killgore WD. The effects of  modafinil, caffeine, and dextroamphetamine on judgments of simple versus complexemotional expressions following sleep deprivation.
Int J Neurosci. 2008  Apr;118(4):487-502. [PMID: 18322858]  

Killgore WD, Cotting DI, Thomas JL, Cox AL, McGurk D, Vo AH, Castro CA, HogeCW. Post-combat invincibility: violent combat experiences are associated with  increased risk-taking propensity following deployment.
J Psychiatr Res. 2008  Oct;42(13):1112-21. Epub 2008 Mar 4. [PMID: 18291419]

Killgore WD, Richards JM, Killgore DB, Kamimori GH, Balkin TJ. The trait of  Introversion-Extraversion predicts vulnerability to sleep deprivation.
J Sleep  Res. 2007 Dec;16(4):354-63. [PMID: 18036080]  

Killgore WD, Lipizzi EL, Kamimori GH, Balkin TJ. Caffeine effects on risky  decision making after 75 hours of sleep deprivation.
Aviat Space Environ Med.  2007 Oct;78(10):957-62. [PMID: 17955944]

Killgore WD, Kendall AP, Richards JM, McBride SA. Lack of degradation in  visuospatial perception of line orientation after one night of sleep loss. 
Percept Mot Skills. 2007 Aug;105(1):276-86. [PMID: 17918576]  

Killgore WD, Kahn-Greene ET, Lipizzi EL, Newman RA, Kamimori GH, Balkin TJ.  Sleep deprivation reduces perceived emotional intelligence and constructive  thinking skills.
Sleep Med. 2008 Jul;9(5):517-26. Epub 2007 Aug 30. [PMID:17765011]  

Killgore WD, Yurgelun-Todd DA. Neural correlates of emotional intelligence in  adolescent children.
Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 2007 Jun;7(2):140-51. [ PMID: 17672385]  

Killgore WD. Effects of sleep deprivation and morningness-eveningness traitson risk-taking.
Psychol Rep. 2007 Apr;100(2):613-26. [PMID: 17564238]

Vo AH, Satori R, Jabbari B, Green J, Killgore WD, Labutta R, Campbell WW.  Botulinum toxin type-a in the prevention of migraine: a double-blind controlled  trial.
Aviat Space Environ Med. 2007 May;78(5 Suppl):B113-8. [PMID:  17547312]  

Killgore WD, Yurgelun-Todd DA. Positive affect modulates activity in the  visual cortex to images of high calorie foods.
Int J Neurosci. 2007  May;117(5):643-53. [PMID: 17464782]

Killgore WD, Killgore DB. Morningness-eveningness correlates with verbal  ability in women but not men.
Percept Mot Skills. 2007 Feb;104(1):335-8. [ PMID: 17450994]

Killgore WD, Killgore DB, Day LM, Li C, Kamimori GH, Balkin TJ. The effects  of 53 hours of sleep deprivation on moral judgment.
Sleep. 2007 Mar;30(3):345-52.  [PMID: 17425231]  

Kahn-Greene ET, Killgore DB, Kamimori GH, Balkin TJ, Killgore WD. The effects  of sleep deprivation on symptoms of psychopathology in healthy adults.
Sleep Med.  2007 Apr;8(3):215-21. Epub 2007 Mar 26. [PMID: 17368979]

Killgore WD, Gruber SA, Yurgelun-Todd DA. Depressed mood and lateralized  prefrontal activity during a Stroop task in adolescent children.
Neurosci Lett.  2007 Apr 6;416(1):43-8. Epub 2007 Mar 2. [PMID: 17350756]  

Killgore WD, Killgore DB, Ganesan G, Krugler AL, Kamimori GH. Trait-anger  enhances effects of caffeine on psychomotor vigilance performance.
Percept Mot  Skills. 2006 Dec;103(3):883-6. [PMID: 17326518]  

Rosso IM, Killgore WD, Cintron CM, Gruber SA, Tohen M, Yurgelun-Todd DA.  Reduced amygdala volumes in first-episode bipolar disorder and correlation with  cerebral white matter.
Biol Psychiatry. 2007 Mar 15;61(6):743-9. Epub 2006 Nov  21. [PMID: 17123471]

Yurgelun-Todd DA, Killgore WD. Fear-related activity in the prefrontal cortex  increases with age during adolescence: a preliminary fMRI study. Neurosci Lett.  2006 Oct 9;406(3):194-9. Epub 2006 Aug 30. [PMID: 16942837]

Kendall AP, Kautz MA, Russo MB, Killgore WD. Effects of sleep deprivation onlateral visual attention.
Int J Neurosci. 2006 Oct;116(10):1125-38. [PMID:16923682] 

Killgore WD, McBride SA, Killgore DB, Balkin TJ. The effects of caffeine,  dextroamphetamine, and modafinil on humor appreciation during sleep deprivation.
Sleep. 2006 Jun;29(6):841-7. [PMID: 16796223]  

Killgore WD, McBride SA. Odor identification accuracy declines following 24 h  of sleep deprivation.
J Sleep Res. 2006 Jun;15(2):111-6. [PMID: 16704564]  

Killgore WD, Vo AH, Castro CA, Hoge CW. Assessing risk propensity in American  soldiers: preliminary reliability and validity of the Evaluation of Risks (EVAR)scale--English version.
Mil Med. 2006 Mar;171(3):233-9. [PMID: 16602523]  

Killgore WD, Stetz MC, Castro CA, Hoge CW. The effects of prior combat  experience on the expression of somatic and affective symptoms in deploying  soldiers.
J Psychosom Res. 2006 Apr;60(4):379-85. [PMID: 16581362]  

Killgore WD, Yurgelun-Todd DA. Affect modulates appetite-related brain  activity to images of food.
Int J Eat Disord. 2006 Jul;39(5):357-63. [PMID:  16565998]  

Killgore WD, Balkin TJ, Wesensten NJ. Impaired decision making following 49 h  of sleep deprivation.
J Sleep Res. 2006 Mar;15(1):7-13. [PMID: 16489997]  

Killgore WD, Yurgelun-Todd DA. Ventromedial prefrontal activity correlates  with depressed mood in adolescent children.
Neuroreport. 2006 Feb 6;17(2):167-71.  [PMID: 16407765]  

Kahn-Greene ET, Lipizzi EL, Conrad AK, Kamimori GH, Killgore WD. Sleep deprivation adversely affects interpersonal responses to frustration.
Pers Individ Dif. 41(8):1433-1443, 2006.

McBride SA, Balkin TJ, Kamimori GH, Killgore WD. Olfactory decrements as a function of two nights of sleep deprivation.
J Sens Stud. 24(4):456-63, 2006.

Killgore WD, Yurgelun-Todd DA. Developmental changes in the functional brainresponses of adolescents to images of high and low-calorie foods.
Dev Psychobiol. 2005 Dec;47(4):377-97. [PMID: 16284969]  

Killgore WD, Yurgelun-Todd DA. Social anxiety predicts amygdala activation in  adolescents viewing fearful faces.
Neuroreport. 2005 Oct 17;16(15):1671-5. [ PMID: 16189475]  

Wesensten NJ, Killgore WD, Balkin TJ. Performance and alertness effects of  caffeine, dextroamphetamine, and modafinil during sleep deprivation.
J Sleep Res.  2005 Sep;14(3):255-66. [PMID: 16120100]  

Killgore WD, Glahn DC, Casasanto DJ. Development and Validation of the Design  Organization Test (DOT): a rapid screening instrument for assessing visuospatialability.
J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2005 May;27(4):449-59. [PMID: 15962691]  

Killgore WD, Yurgelun-Todd DA. Body mass predicts orbitofrontal activity  during visual presentations of high-calorie foods.
Neuroreport. 2005 May  31;16(8):859-63. [PMID: 15891585]

Killgore WD, Yurgelun-Todd DA. Sex-related developmental differences in the  lateralized activation of the prefrontal cortex and amygdala during perception of  facial affect.
Percept Mot Skills. 2004 Oct;99(2):371-91. [PMID: 15560325]

Killgore WD, Yurgelun-Todd DA. Activation of the amygdala and anterior  cingulate during nonconscious processing of sad versus happy faces.
Neuroimage.  2004 Apr;21(4):1215-23. [PMID: 15050549]

Killgore WD, Young AD, Femia LA, Bogorodzki P, Rogowska J, Yurgelun-Todd DA.Cortical and limbic activation during viewing of high- versus low-calorie foods.
Neuroimage. 2003 Aug;19(4):1381-94. [PMID: 12948696]  

Yurgelun-Todd DA, Killgore WD, Cintron CB. Cognitive correlates of medial  temporal lobe development across adolescence: a magnetic resonance imaging study. 
Percept Mot Skills. 2003 Feb;96(1):3-17. [PMID: 12705502] 

Yurgelun-Todd DA, Killgore WD, Young AD. Sex differences in cerebral tissue  volume and cognitive performance during adolescence.
Psychol Rep. 2002 Dec;91(3  Pt 1):743-57. [PMID: 12530718] 

Killgore WD, Cupp DW. Mood and sex of participant in perception of happy  faces.
Percept Mot Skills. 2002 Aug;95(1):279-88. [PMID: 12365265]  

Killgore WD. Laterality of lesions and trait-anxiety on working memory  performance.
Percept Mot Skills. 2002 Apr;94(2):551-8. [PMID: 12027352]

Casasanto DJ, Killgore WD, Maldjian JA, Glosser G, Alsop DC, Cooke AM,  Grossman M, Detre JA. Neural correlates of successful and unsuccessful verbal  memory encoding.
Brain Lang. 2002 Mar;80(3):287-95. [PMID: 11896642]

Killgore WD, Yurgelun-Todd DA. Sex differences in amygdala activation duringthe perception of facial affect.
Neuroreport. 2001 Aug 8;12(11):2543-7. [ PMID: 11496145] 

Killgore WD, DellaPietra L. Using the WMS-III to detect malingering:  empirical validation of the rarely missed index (RMI).
J Clin Exp Neuropsychol.  2000 Dec;22(6):761-71. [PMID: 11320434]

Yurgelun-Todd DA, Gruber SA, Kanayama G, Killgore WD, Baird AA, Young AD.  fMRI during affect discrimination in bipolar affective disorder.
Bipolar Disord.2000 Sep;2(3 Pt 2):237-48. [PMID: 11249801]  

Killgore WD, Oki M, Yurgelun-Todd DA. Sex-specific developmental changes in  amygdala responses to affective faces.
Neuroreport. 2001 Feb 12;12(2):427-33.  [PMID: 11209962]  

Killgore WD. Academic and research interest in several approaches to  psychotherapy: a computerized search of literature in the past 16 years.
PsycholRep. 2000 Dec;87(3 Pt 1):717-20. [PMID: 11191372]  

Maldjian JA, Detre JA, Killgore WD, Judy K, Alsop D, Grossman M, Glosser G.  Neuropsychologic performance after resection of an activation cluster involved in  cognitive memory function.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2001 Feb;176(2):541-4. [ PMID: 11159112]  

Killgore WD. Sex differences in identifying the facial affect of normal and  mirror-reversed faces.
Percept Mot Skills. 2000 Oct;91(2):525-30. [PMID:  11065313]

Killgore WD, Casasanto DJ, Yurgelun-Todd DA, Maldjian JA, Detre JA.  Functional activation of the left amygdala and hippocampus during associative  encoding.
Neuroreport. 2000 Jul 14;11(10):2259-63. [PMID: 10923682]  

Killgore WD, Dellapietra L. Item response biases on the logical memory  delayed recognition subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III.
Psychol Rep. 2000  Jun;86(3 Pt 1):851-7. [PMID: 10876333] 

Killgore WD. Evidence for a third factor on the Positive and Negative AffectSchedule in a college student sample.
Percept Mot Skills. 2000 Feb;90(1):147-52.[PMID: 10769893]

Killgore WD. The visual analogue mood scale: can a single-item scale  accurately classify depressive mood state?
Psychol Rep. 1999 Dec;85(3 Pt  2):1238-43. [PMID: 10710979]

Killgore WD, DellaPietra L, Casasanto DJ. Hemispheric laterality and  self-rated personality traits.
Percept Mot Skills. 1999 Dec;89(3 Pt 1):994-6.  [PMID: 10665036.

Killgore WD, Glosser G, Casasanto DJ, French JA, Alsop DC, Detre JA.  Functional MRI and the Wada test provide complementary information for predicting  post-operative seizure control.
Seizure. 1999 Dec;8(8):450-5. [PMID:  10627406]  

Killgore WD, Adams RL. Prediction of Boston Naming Test performance from  vocabulary scores: preliminary guidelines for interpretation.
Percept Mot Skills.  1999 Aug;89(1):327-37. [PMID: 10544434]  

Killgore WD, Gangestad SW. Sex differences in asymmetrically perceiving the  intensity of facial expressions.
Percept Mot Skills. 1999 Aug;89(1):311-4. [ PMID: 10544432]  

Killgore WD. Affective valence and arousal in self-rated depression and  anxiety.
Percept Mot Skills. 1999 Aug;89(1):301-4. [PMID: 10544430]

Killgore WD. Empirically derived factor indices for the Beck Depression  Inventory.
Psychol Rep. 1999 Jun;84(3 Pt 1):1005-13. [PMID: 10408220]

Killgore WD. The Affect Grid: a moderately valid, nonspecific measure of  pleasure and arousal.
Psychol Rep. 1998 Oct;83(2):639-42. [PMID: 9819938]

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