Faculty Profile

Frank A.J.L. Scheer, PhD

F_Scheer profile photo 20170914
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School
Neuroscientist, Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders, Departments of Medicine and Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital

Administrative Title(s)

Director, Medical Chronobiology Program, Brigham and Women's Hospital

See publications


Medical Chronobiology Program, Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders, BWH
221 Longwood Avenue (BLI-044)
Boston, MA 02115

Inter-office Mail Address


Phone 617-732-7014
Fax 617-733-7337

Email fscheer@rics.bwh.harvard.edu

Society Memberships

Sleep Research Society
Society for Research on Biological Rhythms
Dutch Neurofederation
Federation of European Neurosciences
European Sleep Research Society
European Biological Rhythms Society

Research Unit(s)

Medical Chronobiology Program, Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders, Brigham and Women's Hospital
Medical Biodynamics Program, Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders, Brigham and Women's Hospital

Research Interests

Shift work is associated with an increased risk for obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes that cannot be fully explained by differences in lifestyle and socioeconomic status. Shift work is associated with circadian misalignment between the endogenous circadian timing system and the sleep/wake, fasting/eating, and dark/light cycles. The goal of the Medical Chronobiology Program at Brigham and Women's Hospital is to understand the biological basis behind this increased disease risk among shift workers, and that associated with chronotype, social jet lag, and meal timing. Understanding the biological basis may provide an insight into the underlying cause of disease and could lead to better therapy (e.g., appropriately timed meals, exercise, and medication).


Taneisha Benjamin, 2005
Thomas J. Shea, 2006-2007
Anna Dowdle, 2006-2008
Grace McKay-Corkum, 2012
Isadora Bozzi, 2012-2013
Lucas Vargas, 2013
Seth Morrison, 2019

Mariya Kogan, 2007-2008
Kirk Krogsted, 2007-2013
Noortje Trienekens, 2011-2012
Ann-Cathrin Plennis, 2015

PhD student
Yolanda Larriba, 2019 (internship)

Anne-Marie Chang, PhD, 2005 - 2011
Kun Hu, PhD, 2006-2007
Mikhail Litinski, MD, 2008-2009
Christopher J. Morris, PhD, 2010-2015
Wenli Zhang, MD 2011-2012
Matthew Butler, PhD 2011-2013
David Barr, PhD 2013-2015
Jingyi Qian, PhD 2015-present
Sarah Chellappa, PhD 2016-present
Nina Vujovic, PhD, 2017-present
Ivy Cheung Mason, PhD, 2018-present


Steven A. Shea, PhD
Charles A. Czeisler, PhD, MD

Research Funding


NIH/NIA P01AG009975; PI: Czeisler
“Sleep, Aging, and Circadian Rhythm Disorders”
Role: Co-Investigator

NIDDK R01 DK099512; PI: F.A.J.L. Scheer
“Meal Time Effects on Metabolic Health”
Role: Principal Investigator

NHLBI R01 HL118601; PI: F.A.J.L. Scheer
“Development of countermeasures against adverse metabolic effects of shift work”
Role: Principal Investigator

NIH/NIDDK R01 DK102696; Multi-PI: F.A.J.L. Scheer and R. Saxena
“Melatonin and Receptor Gene Variant: Linking Circadian System and Type 2 Diabetes”
Role: Principal Investigator

NIH/NIA R01AG048108; PI: K Hu   
"Neuropathology for disrupted multiscale activity control in Alzheimer’s disease"
Role: Co-Investigator

NIH/NIDDK R01 DK105072;  Multi-PI: F.A.J.L. Scheer and R. Saxena
“Impact of Melatonin, Food Timing and Receptor Variant on Type 2 Diabetes”
Role: Principal Investigator

NIH-NHLBI R01 HL132556: PI: Kristal
“Circadian Lipidomics in Constant Routine, Forced Desynchrony, and Non-lab Setting”
Role: Co-Investigator

NIH-NIDDK R01 DK107859: PI: Saxena
“Genetics of Chronotype and Impact on Metabolic Disease”
Role: Co-Investigator

NIH/NHLBI R01 HL140574; Multi-PI: F.A.J.L. Scheer and Ali Tavakkoli
“Role of Meal Timing in Efficacy of Bariatric Surgery in Obese Individuals”
Role: Principal Investigator


NIH/NHLBI R21HL121728; PI: R. Saxena
”Discovery of genes for sleep traits”
Role: Co-Investigator

NNX10AR10G; PI: S.A. Shea   
“Identification of cardiometabolic vulnerabilities caused by effects of synergistic stressors that are commonly encountered during space missions”
Role: Co-Investigator

NHLBI R01 HL094806, PI: F.A.J.L. Scheer
“Mechanisms underlying adverse health consequences of shift work”

NIH NIDDK R21DK089378; Multiple-PIs: R. Saxena and F.A.J.L. Scheer
“Impact of MTNR1B and CRY2 variants on sleep circadian physiology and

NHLBI P30 HL101299; PI: C.A. Czeisler; New Faculty: F.A.J.L. Scheer
“New Faculty in Sleep Medicine”

Harvard Catalyst Pilot Grant; Co-PIs: F.A.J.L. Scheer and R. Saxena
"Mechanistic impact of the novel MTNR1B type 2 diabetes gene on changes in circadian, metabolic and sleep physiology"

NCCAM R21 AT002713;PI: F.A.J.L. Scheer
"Melatonin supplementation in hypertensive patients treated with beta-blockers"

Brigham and Women's Hospital Biomedical Research Institute; PI: F.A.J.L. Scheer
Fund to Sustain Research Excellence

NIH/NHLBI R01; PI: S.A. Shea
"Circadian and behavioral factors of cardiovascular risk"

NIH/NHLBI R01; PI: C.A. Czeisler
"Adaptation of circadian responses to light treatment"

Pickwick Fellowship (National Sleep Foundation); PI: F.A.J.L. Scheer
"Restoration of sleep quality in hypertensive patients"

Cephalon training grant; PI: C.A. Czeisler
Clinical Fellowships in Circadian Medicine

NIH/NINDS R01; PI: C.A. Czeisler
“Circadian Adaptation to Non-24-hour Sleep-Wake Schedules”


MCB 186 - Sleep and Circadian Clocks: from Biology to Public Health. Harvard University.
Faculty: Charles Czeisler and Frank Scheer
GenEd 1038 - Sleep. Harvard College.
Faculty: Charles Czeisler and Frank Scheer

Recent Awards
Awards and Honors:
2019    Outstanding Scientific Achievement Award (to Frank AJL Scheer and Steven A Shea), Sleep Research Society
2015    Nominated for the 2014-2015 A. Clifford Barger Excellence in Mentoring Award, Harvard Medical School
2014    Nominated for the 2013-2014 Harold Amos Faculty Diversity Award, Harvard Medical School
2010    Young Investigator Award, Honorable Mention, Sleep Research Society
2009    Neal Miller Award, Keystone, CO, Academy of Behavioral Medicine Research
2008    1st Place Clinical Research Young Investigator Award,
           National Sleep Foundation/Sleep Research Society
2007    Young Investigator Award, American Academy of Sleep Medicine
2006    Alliance Chronosleep Award, European Sleep Research Society
2006    Finalist Helgi Kristbjarnarson's Award, European Sleep Research Society
2005    Pickwick Postdoctoral Fellowship, National Sleep Foundation (2005-2007)

Related Websites
Medical Chronobiology Program
Brigham and Women’s Hospital
Journal of Circadian Rhythms (Editor)
Journal of Geriatric Cardiology (Editor)
World Journal of Diabetes (Editor)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease (Editor)
Neurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms (Editor)

Selected Publications

Original Reports

Qian J, Morris CJ, Caputo R, Wang W, Garaulet M, Scheer FAJL. Sex Differences in the Circadian Misalignment Effects on Energy Regulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Nov 4. pii: 201914003. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1914003116. [Epub ahead of print; PMID: 31685618]

Qian J*, Scheer FAJL*, Hu K, Shea SA. The circadian system modulates the rate of recovery of systolic blood pressure after exercise in humans. SLEEP. 2019 Oct 16. pii: zsz253. doi: 10.1093/sleep/zsz253. [Epub ahead of print; PMID: 31616941]
   †shared first authorship

Wang H, Lane JM, Jones SE, Dashti HS, Ollila HM, Wood AR, van Hees VT, Brumpton B, Winsvold BS, Kantojärvi K, Palviainen T, Cade BE, Sofer T, Song Y, Patel K, Anderson SG, Bechtold DA, Bowden J, Emsley R, Kyle SD, Little MA, Loudon AS, Scheer FAJL, Purcell SM, Richmond RC, Spiegelhalder K, Tyrrell J, Zhu X, Hublin C, Kaprio JA, Kristiansson K, Sulkava S, Paunio T, Hveem K, Nielsen JB, Willer CJ, Zwart JA, Strand LB, Frayling TM, Ray D, Lawlor DA, Rutter MK, Weedon MN, Redline S, Saxena R. Genome-wide association analysis of self-reported daytime sleepiness identifies 42 loci that suggest biological subtypes. Nat Comm. 2019;10:3503. [PMID: 31409809]

Dashti HS, Merino J, Lane JM, Song Y, Smith CE, Tanaka T, McKeown NM, Tucker C, Sun D, Bartz TM, Li-Gao R, Nisa H, Reutrakul S, Lemaitre RN, Alshehri TM, de Mutsert R, Bazzano L, Qi L, Knutson KL, Psaty BM, Mook-Kanamori DO, Perica VB, Neuhouser ML, Scheer FAJL, Rutter MK, Garaulet M, Saxena R. Genome-wide association study of breakfast skipping links clock regulation with food timing. Am J Clin Nutr. 2019;110:473-484. [Epub Jun 13; PMID: 31190057]

Chang AM, Duffy JF, Buxton OM, Lane JM, Aeschbach D, Anderson C, Bjonnes AC, Cain SW, Cohen DA, Frayling TM, Gooley JJ, Jones SE, Klerman EB, Lockley SW, Munch M, Rajaratnam SMW, Rueger M, Rutter MK, Santhi N, Scheuermaier K, Van Reen E, Weedon MN, Czeisler CA, Scheer FAJL,† Saxena R.† Chronotype Genetic Variant in PER2 is Associated with Intrinsic Circadian Period in Humans. Sci Rep. 2019 Mar 29;9(1):5350. [PMID: 30926824]
   †shared senior authorship.

McHill AW, Czeisler CA, Phillips AJK, Keating L, Barger LK, Garaulet M, Scheer FAJL, Klerman EB. Caloric and Macronutrient Intake Differ with Circadian Phase and Between Lean and Overweight Young Adults. Nutrients. 2019;11:587. [PMID: 30862011]

Gao L, Li P, Hu C, To T, Patxot M, Falvey B, Wong PM, Scheer FAJL, Lin C, Lo MT, Hu K. Nocturnal Heart Rate Variability Moderates the Association Between Sleep-Wake Regularity and Mood in Young Adults. SLEEP. 2019;42:zsz034. [PMID: 30722058]

Dashti HS, Jones SE, Wood AR, Lane JM, van Hees VT, Wang H, Rhodes JA, Song Y, Patel K, Anderson SG, Beaumont RN, Bechtold DA, Bowden J, Cade BE, Garaulet M, Kyle SD, Little MA, Loudon AS, Luik AI, Scheer FAJL, Spiegelhalder K, Tyrrell J, Gottlieb DJ, Tiemeier H, Ray DW, Purcell SM, Frayling TM, Redline S, Lawlor DA, Rutter MK, Weedon MN, Saxena R. Genome-wide association study identifies genetic loci for self-reported habitual sleep duration supported by accelerometer-derived estimates. Nat Commun. 2019;10:1100. [PMID: 30846698]

Scheer FAJL, Chellappa SL, Hu K, Shea SA. Impact of mental stress, the circadian system and their interaction on human cardiovascular function. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2019;103:125-129. [Epub 2019 Jan 16; PMID: 30682628]

Xiao Q, Garaulet M, Scheer FAJL. Meal timing and obesity; interactions with macronutrient intake and chronotype. Int J Obesity. 2019 Jan 31. [Epub ahead of print; PMID: 30705391].

Chellappa SL, Morris CJ, Scheer FAJL. Effects of circadian misalignment on cognition in chronic shift workers. Sci Rep. 2019;9:699. [PMID: 30679522]

Lane JM, Jones SE, Dashti HS, Wood AR, Aragam KG, van Hees VT, Strand LB, Winsvold BS, Wang H, Bowden J, Song Y, Patel K, Anderson SG, Beaumont RN, Bechtold DA, Cade BE, Haas M, Kathiresan S, Little MA, Luik AI, Loudon AS, Purcell S, Richmond RC, Scheer FAJL, Schormair B, Tyrrell J, Winkelman JW, Winkelmann J; HUNT All In Sleep, Hveem K, Zhao C, Nielsen JB, Willer CJ, Redline S, Spiegelhalder K, Kyle SD, Ray DW, Zwart JA, Brumpton B, Frayling TM, Lawlor DA, Rutter MK, Weedon MN, Saxena R. Biological and clinical insights from genetics of insomnia symptoms. Nat Genet. 2019 Mar;51(3):387-393. [Epub 2019 Feb 25; PMID: 30804566]

Qian J, Morris CJ, Caputo R, Garaulet M, and Scheer FAJL. Ghrelin is Impacted by the Endogenous Circadian System and by Circadian Misalignment in Humans. Int J Obes. 2019;43:1644-1649 [Epub 2018 Sep 19; PMID: 30232416].

Wefers J, van Moorsel D, Hansen J, Connell NJ, Havekes B, Hoeks J, van Marken Lichtenbelt WD, Duez H, Phielix E, Kalsbeek A, Boekschoten MV, Hooiveld GJ, Hesselink MKC, Kersten S, Staels B, Scheer FAJL, Schrauwen P. Circadian misalignment induces fatty acid metabolism gene profiles and compromises insulin sensitivity in human skeletal muscle. PNAS, 2018;115:7789-7794. [PMID: 29987027]

Kolbe I, Carrasco-Benso MP, López-Mínguez J, Luján J, Scheer FAJL, Oster H, Garaulet M. Circadian period of luciferase expression shortens with age in human mature adipocytes from obese patients. FASEB J. 2019;33:175-180. [Epub 2018 Jul 2; PMID: 29965796].

Qian J, Dalla Man C,* Morris CJ,* Cobelli C, Scheer FAJL. Differential effects of the circadian system and circadian misalignment on insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in humans. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism. 2018;20:2481-2485 [PMID: 29862620].
* These authors contributed equally to the study.

Lopez-Minguez J, Dashti HS, Madrid-Valero JJ, Madrid JA, Saxena R, Scheer FA, Ordoñana JR, Garaulet M. Heritability of the timing of food intake. Clin Nutr. 2019;38:767-773. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

Li P, Yu L, Lim ASP, Buchman AS, Scheer FAJL, Shea SA, Schneider JA, Bennett DA, Hu K. Fractal regulation and incident Alzheimer’s disease in elderly individuals. Alzheimers Dement. 2018;14:1114-1125 [Epub 2018 May 4. PMID: 29733807].

Chellappa SL, Morris CJ, Scheer FA. Daily circadian misalignment impairs human cognitive performance task-dependently. Sci Rep. 2018;8:3041.

Vetter C, Dashti HS, Lane JM, Anderson SG, Schernhammer ES, Rutter MK, Saxena R, Scheer FAJL. Night Shift Work, Genetic Risk, and Type 2 Diabetes in the UK Biobank. Diabetes Care. 2018;41:762-769

Williams JS, Autori PJ, Kidd SK, Piazza G, Connors MC, Czeisler CA, Scheuermaier KD, Klerman EB, Duffy JF, Scheer FA, Kozak M, Driscoll S, Goldhaber SZ. Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia in Healthy Individuals with Continuous Heparin Infusion. TH Open. 2018;2:e49–e53.

Vera B, Dashti H, Gómez-Abellán P, Hernández-Martínez AM, Esteban A, Scheer FA, Saxena R, Garaulet M. Modifiable lifestyle behaviors, but not a genetic risk score, associate with metabolic syndrome in evening chronotypes. Scientific Reports. 2018;8:945. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-18268-z. [PMID: 29343740].

Collado MC, Engen PA, Bandín C, Cabrera-Rubio R, Voigt RM, Green SJ, Naqib A, Keshavarzian A, Scheer FAJL,† Garaulet M.† Timing of food intake impacts daily rhythms of human salivary microbiota: a randomized, crossover study. FASEB J. 2017 Dec 12. pii: fj.201700697RR. doi: 10.1096/fj.201700697RR. [Epub ahead of print; PMID: 29233857].
†shared senior authorship.

Joustra SD, Gu C, Rohling JHT, Pickering L, Klose M, Hu K, Scheer FA, Feldt-Rasmussen U, Jennum PJ, Pereira AM, Biermasz NR, Meijer JH. Decrease in scale invariance of activity fluctuations with aging and in patients with suprasellar tumors. Chronobiol Int. 2017 Nov 28:1-10. doi: 10.1080/07420528.2017.1407779. [Epub ahead of print; PMID: 29182371].

McHill AW, Phillips AJK, Czeisler CA, Keating L, Yee K, Barger LK, Garaulet MA, Scheer FAJL, Klerman EB. Later circadian timing of food intake is associated with increased body fat. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Sep 6. [PMID: 28877894]

Li P, Morris CJ, Patxot M, Yugay T, Mistretta J, Purvis TE, Scheer FAJL, Hu K. Reduced tolerance to night shift in chronic shift workers: insight from fractal regulation. SLEEP, 2017 Jul 1;40(7). [PMID: 28838129]

Lo M-T, Bandín Saura MC, Yang H-W, Scheer FAJL, Hu K, and Garaulet M. CLOCK 3111T/C genetic variant influences the daily rhythm of autonomic nervous function: relevance to body weight control. Int J Obes (Lond). 2017 Jul 24. [PMID: 28736443]

Lopez-Minguez J, Saxena R, Bandín C, Scheer FA,* Garaulet M.* Late dinner impairs glucose tolerance in MTNR1B risk allele carriers: A randomized, cross-over study. Clinical Nutrition. 2017 Apr 10. [PMID: 28455106]
*shared senior authorship.

Tucker MA, Morris CJ, Morgan A, Yang J, Myers S, Garcia Pierce J, Stickgold R, Scheer FA. The Relative Impact of Sleep and Circadian Drive on Motor Skill Acquisition and Consolidation. SLEEP, 2017 Apr 1;40(4).. [PMID: 28460138]

Morris CJ, Purvis TE, Mistretta J, Hu K, Scheer FA. Circadian misalignment increases blood pressure and C-reactive protein in chronic shift workers. J Biol Rhythms, 2017;32:154-164. [PMID: 28347188]

Lane JM, Liang J, Vlasac I, Anderson SG, Bechtold DA, Bowden J, Emsley R, Gill S, Little MA, Luik AI, Loudon A, Scheer FAJL, Purcell SM, Kyle SD, Lawlor DA, Zhu X, Redline S, Ray DW, Rutter MK, Saxena R. Genome-wide association studies of sleep disturbance traits identify novel loci and highlight shared genetics with neuropsychiatric and metabolic traits. Nature Gen. 2017;49:274-281. [PMID: 27992416]

van Moorsel D, Hansen J, Havekes B, Scheer FAJL, Jörgensen JA, Hoeks J, Schrauwen-Hinderling VB, Duez H, Lefebvre P, Schaper NC, Hesselink MKC, Staels B, Schrauwen P. Demonstration of a Day-Night Rhythm in Human Skeletal Muscle Oxidative Capacity. Mol Metab. 2016;5:635-45. [PMID: 27656401]

Hu K, Riemersma - van der Lek RF, Patxot M, Shea SA, Scheer FAJL, Van Someren EJW. Progression of Dementia Assessed by Temporal Correlations of Physical Activity: Results From a 3.5-Year, Longitudinal Randomized Controlled Trial. Sci Rep. 2016 Jun 13:27742. [PMID: 27292543]

Carrasco-Benso MP, Rivero-Gutiérrez B, López-Mínguez J, Anzola A, Diez-Noguera A, Madrid JA, Luján JA, Martínez-Agustín O, Scheer FA,* Garaulet M.* Human adipose tissue expresses intrinsic circadian rhythm in insulin sensitivity. FASEB J. 2016;30:3117-23 [PMID: 27256623]
*shared senior authorship.

Chang AM, Bjonnes A, Aeschbach D, Buxton OM, Gooley JJ, Anderson C, Van Reen E, Cain SW, Czeisler CA, Duffy JF, Lockley SW, Shea SA, Scheer FAJL,* Saxena R.* Circadian Gene Variants Influence Sleep and the Sleep Electroencephalogram in Humans. Chronobiol Int. In press.
*shared senior authorship.

Ruiz-Lozano T, Vidal J, de Hollanda A, Scheer FA, Garaulet M, Izquierdo-Pulido M. Timing of food intake is associated with weight loss evolution in severe obese patients after bariatric surgery. Clin Nutr. 2016 Feb 16. [Epub ahead of print]

Lane JM, Chang AM, Bjonnes A, Aeschbach D, Anderson C, Cade BE, Cain SW, Czeisler CA, Gharib SA, Gooley JJ, Gottlieb DJ, Grant SF, Klerman EB, Lauderdale DS, Lockley SW, Munch M, Patel S, Punjabi NM, Rajaratnam SMW, Rueger M, St. Hilaire  MA, Santhi  N, Scheuermaier K, Van Reen E, Zee PC, Shea SA, Duffy JF, Buxton OM, Redline S, Scheer FAJL,* Saxena R.* Impact of common variation at diabetes trait loci MTNR1B and CRY2 on sleep, circadian and melatonin physiology. Diabetes. 2016 Feb 11. [Epub ahead of print]
*shared senior authorship.

Lane JM, Vlasac I, Anderson SG, Kyle SD, Dixon WG, Bechtold DA, Little MA, Luik AI, Loudon A, Emsley R, Scheer FAJL, Lawlor DA, Redline S, Ray DW, Rutter MK, Saxena R. Genome-wide analysis identifies novel loci for chronotype highlighting central nervous system circadian biology. Nature Communications. Nat Commun. 2016;7:10889.

Dashti HS, Zuurbier LA, de Jonge E, Voortman T, Jacques PF, Lamon-Fava S, Scheer FA, Kiefte-de Jong JC, Hofman A, Ordovás JM, Franco OH, Tiemeier H. Actigraphic sleep fragmentation, efficiency, and duration associate with dietary intake in the Rotterdam Study. J Sleep Res. 2016 Feb 9. [Epub ahead of print]

Morris CJ, Purvis TE, Hu K, Scheer FA. Circadian misalignment increases cardiovascular disease risk factors in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:E2225-34.

Morris CJ, Purvis TE, Mistretta J, Scheer FA. Effects of the internal circadian system and circadian misalignment on glucose tolerance in chronic shift workers. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Jan 15:jc20153924. [Epub ahead of print; PMID: 26771705]

Garaulet M, Gómez-Abellán P, Rubio-Sastre P, Madrid JA, Saxena R, Scheer FA. Type 2 diabetes-risk variant in MTNR1B worsens the deleterious effect of melatonin on glucose tolerance in humans. Metabolism. 2015;64:1650-7.

Morris CJ, Garcia JI, Myers SA, Yang JN, Trienekens N, Scheer FA. The endogenous circadian system has a dominating role in the morning/evening difference in diet-induced thermogenesis in humans. Obesity. 2015;23:2053-8.

Dashti HS, Aslibekyan S, Scheer FA, Smith CE, Lamon-Fava S, Jacques P, Lai C-Q, Tucker KL, Arnett DK, Ordovás JM. Clock genes explain large proportion of phenotypic variance in systolic blood pressure and this control is not modified by environmental temperature. Am J Hypertens. 2016;29:132-40.

Dashti HS, Follis JL, Smith CE, Tanaka T, Garaulet M, Gottlieb DJ, Hruby A, Jacques PF, Kiefte-de Jong JC, Lamon-Fava S, Scheer FA, Bartz TM, Kovanen L, Wojczynski MK, Frazier-Wood AC, Ahluwalia TS, Perälä M-M, Jonsson A, Muka T, Kalafati IP, Mikkilä V, Ordovás JM. Gene-environment interactions of circadian-related genes for cardiometabolic traits. Diabetes Care. 2015;38:1456-66. [Epub 2015 Jun 17].

Morris CJ, Yang JN, Garcia JI, Myers SA, Bozzi I, Wang W, Buxton OM, Shea SA, Scheer FA. Separate effects of the behavioral cycle, circadian system, and circadian misalignment on glucose tolerance in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2015 Apr 13. [Epub ahead of print; PMID: 25870289].

Burke TM*, Scheer FA*, Ronda JM, Czeisler CA, Wright Jr KP. Sleep inertia, sleep homeostatic, and circadian influences on higher-order cognitive functions. J Sleep Res. 2015 Mar 13. [Epub ahead of print; PMID: 25773686]
*Note: contributed equally to this manuscript.

Gu C, Coomans CP, Hu K, Scheer FA, Stanley HE, Meijer JH. Lack of exercise affects health in young and aged mice as revealed by fractal analysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2015;112:2320-4. [PMID: 25675516].

Rahman SA, Castanon-Cervantes O, Scheer FA, Shea SA, Czeisler CA, Davidson AJ, Lockley SW. Endogenous circadian regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide in humans. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 2014 Nov 13. [Epub ahead of print; PMID: 25452149].

Dashti HS, Follis JL, Smith CE, Tanaka T, Cade BE, Gottlieb DJ, Hruby A, Jacques PF, Lamon-Fava S, Richardson K, Saxena R, Scheer FA, Kovanen L, Bartz TM, Perälä MM, Jonsson A, Frazier-Wood AC, Kalafati IP, Mikkilä V, Partonen T, Lemaitre RN, Lahti J, Hernandez DG, Toft U, Johnson WC, Kanoni S, Raitakari OT, Perola M, Psaty BM, Ferrucci L, Grarup N, Highland HM, Rallidis L, Kähönen M, Havulinna AS, Siscovick DS, Räikkönen K, Jørgensen T, Rotter JI, Deloukas P, Viikari JS, Mozaffarian D, Linneberg A, Seppälä I, Hansen T, Salomaa V, Gharib SA, Eriksson JG, Bandinelli S, Pedersen O, Rich SS, Dedoussis G, Lehtimäki T, Ordovás JM. Habitual sleep duration is associated with BMI and macronutrient intake, and may be modified by CLOCK genetic variants. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;101:135-43 [PMID: 25527757].

Bandín C, Scheer FA, Luque AJ, Ávila-Gandía V, Zamora S, Madrid JA, Gómez-Abellán P, Garaulet M. Meal timing affects glucose tolerance, substrate oxidation and circadian-related variables: a randomized, crossover trial. Int J Obes (Lond). 2014 Oct 14 [Epub ahead of print; PMID: 25311083].

Rubio-Sastre P, Scheer FA, Gómez-Abellán P, Madrid JA, Garaulet M. Acute melatonin administration in humans impairs glucose tolerance both in morning and evening. Sleep. 2014 37:1715-9. [PMID: 25197811].

Hsieh W-H, Escobar C, Yugay T, Lo M-T, Pittman-Polletta B, Salgado-Delgado R, Scheer FA, Shea SA, Buijs RM, Hu K. Simulated shift work in rats perturbs multiscale regulation of locomotor activity. J R Soc Interface. 2014 Jul 6;11(96). pii: 20140318. PMID: 24829282

Buijs F, Cazarez-Marquez F, Basualdo Mdel C, Scheer FA, Perusquía M, Centurion D, and Buijs RM. The suprachiasmatic nucleus is part of a neural feedback circuit controlling blood pressure. Neuroscience. 2014;266:197-207. [Epub 2013 Nov 27; PMID: 24280871]

Tare A, Lane JM, Cade BE, Grant SFA, Chen T-H, Punjabi NM, Lauderdale DS, Zee PC, Gharib SA, Gottlieb DJ, Scheer FAJL, Redline S, Saxena R. Sleep duration does not mediate or modify association of common genetic variants with type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia, 2013 Nov 27. [Epub ahead of print; PMID: 24280871].

Scheer FA, Shea SA. Human circadian system causes morning peak in pro-thrombotic plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) independent of sleep/wake cycle. Blood, 2013 Nov 7. [Epub ahead of print; PMID: 24200683].

Chang A, Scheer FA, Czeisler CA, Aeschbach D. Direct Effects of Light on Alertness, Vigilance, and the Waking Electroencephalogram in Humans Depend on Prior Light History. Sleep. 2013;36:1239-46. [PMID: 23904684]

Hu K, Harper DG, Shea SA, Stopa EG, Scheer FA. Noninvasive fractal biomarker of clock neurotransmitter disturbance in humans with dementia. Sci Rep. 2013 Jul 18;3:2229. [PMID: 23863985]

Lane JM, Tare A, Cade BE, Chen TH, Punjabi NM, Gottlieb DJ, Scheer FA, Redline S, Saxena R. Common Variants in CLOCK Are Not Associated with Measures of Sleep Duration in People of European Ancestry from the Sleep Heart Health Study. Biol Psychiatry. 2013;74(12):e33-5. [PMID: 23871470]

Morris CJ, Hastings JA, Boyd K, Krainski F, Perhonen MA, Scheer FA, Levine BD. Day/night variability in blood pressure: influence of posture and physical activity. Am J Hypertens. 2013 Jun;26(6):822-8. [PMID: 23535155]

Wu YH, Ursinus J, Zhou JN, Scheer FA, Ai-Min B, Jockers R, van Heerikhuize J, Swaab DF. Alterations of melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2 in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus during depression. J Affect Disord. 2013 Jun;148(2-3):357-67. [PMID: 23357659]

Garaulet M, Gómez-Abellán P, Alburquerque-Béjar JJ, Lee YC, Ordovás JM, Scheer FA. Timing of food intake predicts weight loss effectiveness. Int J Obes (Lond). 2013 Apr;37(4):604-11. [PMID: 23357955]

Scheer FA, Morris CJ, Shea SA. The internal circadian clock increases hunger and appetite in the evening independent of food intake and other behaviors. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013 Mar;21(3):421-3. [PMID: 23456944]

Scheer FA, Morris CJ, Garcia JI, Smales C, Kelly EE, Marks J, Malhotra A, Shea SA. Repeated melatonin supplementation improves sleep in hypertensive patients treated with beta-blockers: a randomized controlled trial. Sleep. 2012 Oct 1;35(10):1395-402. [PMID: 23024438]

Hu K, Meijer JH, Shea SA, vanderLeest HT, Pittman-Polletta B, Houben T, van Oosterhout F, Deboer T, Scheer FA. Fractal patterns of neural activity exist within the suprachiasmatic nucleus and require extrinsic network interactions. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e48927. [PMID: 23185285]

Jeyaraj D, Scheer FA, Ripperger JA, Haldar SM, Lu Y, Prosdocimo DA, Eapen SJ, Eapen BL, Cui Y, Mahabeleshwar GH, Lee HG, Smith MA, Casadesus G, Mintz EM, Sun H, Wang Y, Ramsey KM, Bass J, Shea SA, Albrecht U, Jain MK. Klf15 orchestrates circadian nitrogen homeostasis. Cell Metab. 2012 Mar 7;15(3):311-23. [PMID: 22405069]

Scheer FA, Michelson AD, Frelinger III AL, Evoniuk H, Kelly E, Hahn M, Doamekpor LA, Barnard MR, Shea SA. The Human Endogenous Circadian System Causes Greatest Platelet Activation during the Biological Morning Independent of Behaviors. PLoS ONE, 2011 Sept 8;6(9):e24549.

Shea SA, Hilton MF, Hu K, Scheer FA. Existence of an endogenous circadian
blood pressure rhythm in humans that peaks in the evening.
Circ Res. 2011 Apr 15;108(8):980-4. Epub 2011 Apr 7. [PMID: 21474818]

Hu K, Scheer FA, Laker M, Smales C, Shea SA. Endogenous circadian rhythm in vasovagal response to head-up tilt. Circulation, Circulation.
2011 Mar 8;123(9):961-70. Epub 2011 Feb 21. [PMID: 21339480]

Chang A, Scheer FA, Czeisler CA. The human circadian system adapts to prior photic history.
J Physiol, J Physiol. Epub 2011 Jan 10. [PMID: 21224217].

Scheer FA, Hu K, Evoniuk H, Kelly EE, Malhotra A, Hilton MF, Shea SA.
Impact of the human circadian system, exercise, and their interaction on cardiovascular function.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:20541-6. Epub 2010 Nov 8. [PMID: 21059915]

Scheer FA, Chan JL, Fargnoli J, Chamberland J, Arampatzi K, Shea SA, Blackburn GL,  Mantzoros CS. Day/night variations of high-molecular-weight adiponectin and lipocalin-2 in  healthy men studied under fed and fasted conditions.
Diabetologia. 2010 Nov;53(11):2401-5. Epub 2010 Aug 12. [PMID: 20703446]

Jung CM, Khalsa SB, Scheer FA, Cajochen C, Lockley SW, Czeisler CA, Wright KP Jr. Acute  effects of bright light exposure on cortisol levels.
J Biol Rhythms. 2010 Jun;25(3):208-16. [PMID: 20484692]

Pavlova MK, Shea SA, Scheer, FA, Bromfield EB. Is there a circadian variation of epileptiform abnormalities in idiopathic generalized epilepsy?
Epilepsy Behav. 2009 Nov;16(3):461-7. Epub 2009 Sep 27 [PMID: 19786369]

Scheer FA, Hilton MF, Mantzoros CS, Shea SA. Adverse metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of circadian misalignment.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Mar 17;106(11):4453-8. Epub 2009 Mar 2. [PMID: 19255424]

Hu K, van Someren EJ, Shea SA, Scheer, FA. Reduction of scale-invariance of activity  fluctuations with aging and Alzheimer's disease: involvement of the circadian pacemaker.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2009; 106:2490-4. Epub 2009 Feb 6. [PMID: 19202078]

Scheer FA, Shea TJ, Hilton MF, Shea SA. An Endogenous Circadian Rhythm in Sleep Inertia Results in Greatest Cognitive Impairment upon Awakening during the Biological Night.
J Biol Rhythms. 2008 Aug;23(4):353-61. [PMID: 18663242]

Hu K, Scheer FA, Buijs RM, Shea SA. The circadian pacemaker generates similar circadian rhythms in the fractal structure of heart rate in humans and rats.
Cardiovasc Res. 2008 Oct 1;80(1):62-8. Epub 2008 Jun 6. [PMID: 18539630]

Hu K, Scheer FAJL, Ivanov PCh, Buijs RM, Shea SA. The suprachiasmatic nucleus functions beyond circadian rhythm generation.
Neuroscience. 2007;149(3):508-517l. [PMID: 17920204]

Scheer FAJL, Wright Jr. KP, Kronauer RE, Czeisler CA. Plasticity of the Intrinsic Period of the Human Circadian Timing System.
PLoS ONE. 2007;2(1):e721. [PMID: 17684566]

Scheer FA, Stone PH, Shea SA. Decreased sleep in heart failure: are medications to blame?
Arch Intern Med. 2007 May 28;167(10):1098-9; author reply 1099-100. [PMID: 17533214]

Lockley SW, Evans EE, Scheer FA, Brainard GC, Czeisler CA, Aeschbach D. Short-wavelength sensitivity for the direct effects of light on alertness,vigilance, and the waking electroencephalogram in humans.
Sleep. 2006 Feb 1;29(2):161-8. [PMID: 16494083]

Scheer FA. Potential use of melatonin as adjunct antihypertensive therapy.
Am J Hypertens. 2005 Dec;18(12 Pt 1):1619-20. [PMID: 16364835]

Scheer FA, Zeitzer JM, Ayas NT, Brown R, Czeisler CA, Shea SA. Reduced sleep efficiency in cervical spinal cord injury; association with abolished night time melatonin secretion.
Spinal Cord. 2006 Feb;44(2):78-81. [PMID: 16130027]

Scheer FA, Pirovano C, Van Someren EJ, Buijs RM. Environmental light and suprachiasmatic nucleus interact in the regulation of body temperature.
Neuroscience. 2005;132(2):465-77. [PMID: 15802197]

Scheer FA, Van Doornen LJ, Buijs RM. Light and diurnal cycle affect autonomic cardiac balance in human; possible role for the biological clock.
Auton Neurosci. 2004 Jan 30;110(1):44-8. [PMID: 14766324]

Scheer FA, Van Montfrans GA, van Someren EJ, Mairuhu G, Buijs RM. Daily nighttime melatonin reduces blood pressure in male patients with essential hypertension.
Hypertension. 2004 Feb;43(2):192-7. Epub 2004 Jan 19. [PMID: 14732734]

Scheer FA, Van Paassen B, Van Montfrans GA, Fliers E, Van Someren EJ, Van Heerikhuize JJ, Buijs RM. Human basal cortisol levels are increased in hospital compared to home setting.
Neurosci Lett. 2002 Nov 22;333(2):79-82. [PMID: 12419485]

Scheer FA, Ter Horst GJ, van Der Vliet J, Buijs RM. Physiological and anatomic evidence for regulation of the heart by suprachiasmatic nucleus in rats.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001 Mar;280(3):H1391-9. [PMID: 11179089]

Scheer FA, Buijs RM. Light affects morning salivary cortisol in humans.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Sep;84(9):3395-8. [PMID: 10487717]

Scheer FA, van Doornen LJ, Buijs RM. Light and diurnal cycle affect human heart rate: possible role for the circadian pacemaker.
J Biol Rhythms. 1999 Jun;14(3):202-12. [PMID: 10452332]


Qian J, Scheer FAJL. Sex-Dependent Link between Circadian Misalignment and Adiposity. Nat Rev Endocrinol. In Press [Invited Editorial].

Sletten TL, Cappuccio FP, Davidson AJ, Van Cauter E, Rajaratnam SMW, Scheer FAJL. Health Consequences of Circadian Disruption. SLEEP. In Press. [Letter to the Editor]

Mason IC, Qian J, Adler GK, Scheer FAJL. Impact of circadian disruption on glucose metabolism: implications for type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. In Press. [Invited Review].

Chellappa SL, Vujovic N, S. Williams JS, Scheer FAJL. Impact of Circadian Disruption on Cardiovascular Function and Disease. Trends in Endocrinol Metab. 2019 Oct;30(10):767-779. doi: 10.1016/j.tem.2019.07.008. Epub 2019 Aug 16. [Invited Review; PMID: 31427142].

Vetter C, Scheer FAJL. A healthy lifestyle - reducing T2DM risk in shift workers? Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2019;15:194-196. [Invited Editorial].

Dashti HS, Scheer FAJL, Saxena R, Garaulet M. Timing of Food Intake: Identifying Contributing Factors to Design Effective Interventions. Adv Nutr. 2019 May 2. [Epub ahead of print]

Stenvers DJ, Scheer F, Schrauwen P, la Fleur S, Kalsbeek A. Circadian clocks and insulin resistance. Nature Rev Endocrinol. 2019 Feb;15(2):75-89. doi: 10.1038/s41574-018-0122-1. [Invited Review; PMID: 30531917]

Vetter C, Scheer FAJL. Circadian Biology: Uncoupling Human Body Clocks by Food Timing. Curr Biol. 2017;27:R656-R658. [PMID: 28697366]

Ohayon M, Wickwire EM, Hirshkowitz M, Albert S, Avidan A, Daly F, Dauvilliers Y, Ferri R, Fung C, Gozal D, Hazen N, Krystal A, Lichstein K, Mallampalli MP, Plazzi G, Rawding R, Scheer FA, Somers VK, Vitiello M. National Sleep Foundation's sleep quality recommendations: first report. Sleep Health. 2017;3:6-19. [PMID: 28346153]

Qian J, Scheer FA. Circadian clock and glucose metabolism; implications for physiology and disease. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2016;27:282-93. [PMID: 27079518]

Scheer FA. Hungry for Sleep; a Role for Endocannabinoids? Sleep. 2016;39:495-6. [PMID: 26856900]

Johnston JD, Ordovás JM , Scheer FA, Turek FW. Circadian rhythms, metabolism and chrononutrition in rodents and humans. Adv Nutr. 2016;7:399-406. [PMID: 26980824]

Dashti HS, Scheer FA, Jacques PF, Lamon-Fava S, Ordovás JM. Short Sleep Duration and Dietary Intake: Epidemiologic Evidence, Mechanisms, and Health Implications. Adv Nutr. 2015;6:648-59. [PMID: 26567190]

Arble DM, Bass J, Behn CD, Butler MP, Challet E, Czeisler C, Depner CM, Elmquist J, Franken P, Grandner MA, Hanlon EC, Keene AC, Joyner MJ, Karatsoreos I, Kern PA, Klein S, Morris CJ, Pack AI, Panda S, Ptacek LJ, Punjabi NM, Sassone-Corsi P, Scheer FA, Saxena R, Seaquest ER, Thimgan MS, Van Cauter E, Wright KP. Impact of Sleep and Circadian Disruption on Energy Balance and Diabetes: A Summary of Workshop Discussions. Sleep. 2015;38:1849-60 [Epub ahead of print; PMID: 26564131].

Mattson MP, Allison DB, Fontana L, Harvie M, Longo VD, Malaisse WJ, Mosley M, Notterpek L, Ravussin E, Scheer FAJL, Seyfried T, Varady K, Panda S. Meal Frequency and Timing in Health and Disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2014;111:16647-53. [Epub 2014 Nov 17; PMID: 25404320].

Nedeltcheva AV, Scheer FA. Metabolic effects of sleep disruption, links to obesity and diabetes. Current Opinion in Endocrinology and Diabetes, 2014 Jun 17. [Epub ahead of print; PMID: 24937041]

Pittman-Polletta BR, Scheer FA, Butler MP, Shea SA, Hu K. The role of the circadian system in fractal neurophysiological control. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2013;88(4):873-94.  [PMID: 23573942]

Morris CJ, Aeschbach D, Scheer FA. Circadian system, sleep and endocrinology. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012 Feb 5;349(1):91-104. Epub 2011 Sep 10. [Epub ahead of print]

Morris CJ, Yang JN, Scheer FA. The impact of the circadian timing system on cardiovascular and metabolic function. Prog Brain Res. 2012;199:337-58. Review. [PMID: 22877674]

Rüger M, Scheer FA. Effects of circadian disruption on the cardiometabolic system.
 Rev Endocr Metab Disord, 2009 Sep 26. Epub ahead of print. [Invited Review] [PMID: 19784781]

Litinski M, Scheer FA, Shea SA. Influence of the Circadian System on Disease Severity.
 Sleep Med Clinics. 2009;4:143–163.

Scheer FA, Shea SA. Fundamentals of the Circadian System. In: Amlaner C, Fuller P (ed).
SRS Basics of Sleep Guide. 2nd edition. Sleep Research Society. 2009:199-210.

Kalsbeek A, Palm IF, La Fleur SE, Scheer FA, Perreau-Lenz S, Ruiter M, Kreier
F, Cailotto C, Buijs RM. SCN outputs and the hypothalamic balance of life.
J Biol Rhythms. 2006 Dec;21(6):458-69. Review. [PMID: 17107936]

Scheer FA, Czeisler CA. Melatonin, sleep, and circadian rhythms.
 Sleep Med Rev. 2005 Feb;9(1):5-9. Review. [PMID: 15649734]

Scheer FA, Kalsbeek A, Buijs RM. Cardiovascular control by the suprachiasmatic nucleus: neural and neuroendocrine mechanisms in human and rat.
Biol Chem. 2003 May;384(5):697-709. Review. [PMID: 12817466]

Book Chapters

Buijs RM, Scheer FA, Kreier F, Yi C, Bos N, Goncharuk VD, Kalsbeek A. Chapter 20: Organization of circadian functions: interaction with the body.
 Prog Brain Res. 2006;153:341-60.

Scheer FA, Cajochen C, Turek FW, Czeisler CA. Melatonin in the regulation of sleep and circadian rhythms. In: Kryger MH, Roth T, Dement WC (ed).
 Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine. 4th edition. Philadelphia: W B Saunders; 2005:395-404.

Buijs RM, Hermes MLHJ, Dai J, Scheer FA, Kalsbeek A. Circadian organization of the autonomic Nervous system. In: Ter Horst GJ (ed).
 The Nervous System and the Heart. Totowa, NJ, Humana Press Inc; 2000:117-57. [PMID: 16876585]

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