Faculty Profile

Thomas E. Scammell, MD

Thomas E. Scammell, MD
Professor of Neurology, Harvard Medical School
Physician, Professor, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Physician, Professor, Department of Neurobiology, Children's Hospital Boston

See publications


Inter-office Mail Address

Center for Life Sciences, Room 705

Phone 617-667-3237

Society Memberships

American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Sleep Research Society
Society for Neuroscience
American Neurological Association

Research Unit(s)

Systems Neurobiology Group (Scammell), Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Research Interests

Our research focuses on the neurobiology of narcolepsy. Narcolepsy is caused by destruction of the hypothalamic neurons that make the neuropeptides orexin/hypocretin. Using optogenetics, chemogenetics, conditional tracing and photometry,  we are now identifying the critical pathways through which orexins promotes wakefulness and suppresses cataplexy. We also are studying the interactions of sleep with traumatic brain injury and pain. Through these experiments, we hope to gain a detailed understanding of the neurobiology of orexins and other brain pathways that will result in highly effective therapies for patients with narcolepsy and enhance our knowledge of sleep.

Trainees

Emily Ko, MD, 1999-2000
Thomas Jhou (Chou), PhD, 2000-2002
Scott P. Grady, MD, PhD, 2001-2002
Takatoshi Mochizuki, PhD, 2001-2006
Rodrigo A. España, PhD, 2003-2005
Kyoko Yoshida, PhD, 2003-2005
Agnieszka M. Janisiewicz, 2005-2005
Sandor Kantor, PhD, 2005-2009
Cecilia Diniz-Behn, PhD, 2006-2007
Christian R. Bauman, MD, 2007-2008
Chloe Alexandre, PhD, 2007-2017
Alisha Ling, BS, 2010-2011
Christian Burgess, BS, 2010-2012
Philipp Valko, MD, 2010-2012
Yo Oishi, PhD, 2010-2015
Joel Geerling, 2013-2017
Daniel Kroeger, PhD, 2011-present
Carrie Mahoney, PhD, 2012-present
Alissa Coffey, PhD, 2018-present

Research Funding

Ongoing Research Support:

NIH/NHLBI P01 HL095491      03/1/15-02/29/20
“Mechanisms of Arousal in Sleep Apnea: Project 2”
The major goal of this project is to define the neural mechanisms through which specific types of LDT/PPT neurons promote wakefulness, cortical activation, and arousals in a mouse model of OSA. The results of these experiments should substantially improve our scientific knowledge of the neural mechanisms that generate wakefulness and arousals due to hypercapnia, and ultimately lead to better treatments for obstructive sleep apnea.
Role: PI on Project 2

NIH/NINDS R21 NS099787    9/6/16-8/31/18
“Cellular Autoimmune Mechanisms of Narcolepsy”
The major goal of this project is to identify specific T cell population that may contribute to the development of narcolepsy.
Role: Site investigator
      
Foundation for Prader-Willi Research 12/1/16-2/23/18
“Mechanisms of Sleepiness and Other Sleep Disorders in a Mouse Model of PWS-Year 2”
The major goal of this project is to examine the interaction of orexin and oxytocin signaling in sleepiness using a mouse model of Prader-Willi Syndrome.
Role: PI

Merck Research Labs 9/1/17-8/31/19   
“Testing and Validation of a Novel Treatment for Narcolepsy”
The major goal of this project is to test a new Merck compound in a mouse model of narcolepsy to determine if it improves sleepiness and cataplexy.
Role: Co-PI

NIH NINDS R01 NS104497 9/1/17-8/31/19
“Circadian and Sleep Programming in Angelman Syndrome Mouse”
The major goal of this subcontract is to define the sleep phenotype in different models of Angelman Syndrome.
Role: Collaborator

NIH/NINDS R01 NS089649 4/1/18-3/31/23
“Mechanisms of Cataplexy”
The major goal of this project is to define the brain mechanisms through which emotions trigger paralysis in narcolepsy. More broadly, these findings will provide a better understanding of what normally regulates muscle tone during sleep and why this paralysis fails in REM sleep behavior disorder.
Role: PI

Takeda     9/1/17-8/31/19
“Measuring Orexin Tone In Vivo”
The major goal of this project is to develop a new method for measuring orexin tone in awake, moving animals, and to validate this method using orexins and orexin agonists. 
Role: Co-PI

American Sleep Medicine Foundation 3/1/18-2/29/19
“Mechanisms of Cataplexy”
The major goal of this project is to gather additional pilot data to support re-submission of an R01 grant investigating how neurons in the central amygdala regulate cataplexy. 
Role: PI

Teaching

2018: 7th International Symposium on Narcolepsy
2000-present: Neurophysiology sleep and sleep disorders in Biology 186, Harvard College
2012- present: Neurobiology of sleep and wakefulness in HST 130, Harvard Medical School

Honors
2007CSB Distinguished Visiting Neuroscientist, University of Toronto
2009Invited Special Lecture, Annual Meeting of the Associated Professional Sleep     Societies
2010Elected Alumnus Member, Alpha Omega Alpha
2013Researcher of the Year Award, Narcolepsy Network
2015Sleep Science Award, American Academy of Neurology
2016, 2017
Top Doctor, Boston Magazine



Selected Publications

Original Articles

Svetnik V, Snyder ES, Tao P, Scammell TE, Roth T, Lines C, Herring WJ. Insight Into Reduction of Wakefulness by Suvorexant in Patients With Insomnia: Analysis of Wake Bouts. Sleep. 2018;41(1). PMID:29112763.

Imbach LL, Sommerauer M, Poryazova R, Werth E, Valko PO, Scammell TE, Baumann CR. Bradysomnia in Parkinson's disease. Clin Neurophysiol. 2016
Feb;127(2):1403-1409. PMID: 26419612.

Oishi Y, Yoshida K, Scammell TE, Urade Y, Lazarus M, Saper CB. The roles of prostaglandin E2 and D2 in lipopolysaccharide-mediated changes in sleep. Brain Behav Immun. 2015;47:172-7. PMID: 25532785

Valko PO, Gavrilov YV, Yamamoto M, Finn K, Reddy H, Haybaeck J, Weis S, Scammell TE, Baumann CR. Damage to histaminergic tuberomammillary neurons and other hypothalamic neurons with traumatic brain injury. Ann Neurol. 2015 Jan;77(1):177-82. PMID:25363332.

Bastianini S, Berteotti C, Gabrielli A, Del Vecchio F, Amici R, Alexandre C, Scammell TE, Gazea M, Kimura M, Lo Martire V, Silvani A, Zoccoli G. SCOPRISM: a new algorithm for automatic sleep scoring in mice. J Neurosci Methods. 2014;235:277-84. PMID:25092499

Branch AF, Navidi W, Tabuchi S, Terao A, Yamanaka A, Scammell TE, Diniz Behn C. Progressive Loss of the Orexin Neurons Reveals Dual Effects on Wakefulness. Sleep. 2016;39(2):369-77. PMC4712398

Bonsall DR, Kim H, Tocci C, Ndiaye A, Petronzio A, McKay-Corkum G, Molyneux PC, Scammell TE, Harrington ME. Suppression of Locomotor Activity in Female C57Bl/6J Mice Treated with Interleukin-1β: Investigating a Method for the Study of Fatigue in Laboratory Animals. PLoS One. 2015 Oct 15;10(10):e0140678. PMCID: PMC4607158

Geerling JC, Kim M, Mahoney CE, Abbott SB, Agostinelli LJ, Garfield AS,
Krashes MJ, Lowell BB, Scammell TE. Genetic identity of thermosensory relay neurons in the lateral parabrachial nucleus. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2016 Jan 1;310(1):R41-54. PMC4747895

Ferrari LL, Agostinelli LJ, Krashes MJ, Lowell BB, Scammell TE, Arrigoni E. Dynorphin inhibits basal forebrain cholinergic neurons by pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms. J Physiol. 2016 Feb 15;594(4):1069-85. PMC4753266

Perez MV, Pavlovic A, Shang C, Wheeler MT, Miller CL, Liu J, Dewey FE, Pan S,Thanaporn PK, Absher D, Brandimarto J, Salisbury H, Chan K, Mukherjee R,Konadhode RP, Myers RM, Sedehi D, Scammell TE, Quertermous T, Cappola T, Ashley EA. Systems Genomics Identifies a Key Role for Hypocretin/Orexin Receptor-2 in Human Heart Failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015 Dec 8;66(22):2522-33. PMID: 26653627

Gavrilov YV, Ellison BA, Yamamoto M, Reddy H, Haybaeck J, Mignot E, Baumann CR, Scammell TE, Valko PO. Disrupted Sleep in Narcolepsy: Exploring the Integrity of Galanin Neurons in the Ventrolateral Preoptic Area. Sleep. 2016 May 1;39(5):1059-62.PMC4835304

Valko PO, Gavrilov YV, Yamamoto M, Noaín D, Reddy H, Haybaeck J, Weis S,
Baumann CR, Scammell TE. Damage to Arousal-Promoting Brainstem Neurons with Traumatic Brain Injury. Sleep. 2016 Jun 1;39(6):1249-52. PMC4863213

Garfield AS, Shah BP, Burgess CR, Li MM, Li C, Steger JS, Madara JC, Campbell JN, Kroeger D, Scammell TE, Tannous BA, Myers MG Jr, Andermann ML, Krashes MJ, Lowell BB. Dynamic GABAergic afferent modulation of AgRP neurons. Nat Neurosci. 2016 Dec;19(12):1628-1635. PMC5382799

Agostinelli LJ, Ferrari LL, Mahoney CE, Mochizuki T, Lowell BB, Arrigoni E, Scammell TE. Descending projections from the basal forebrain to the orexin neurons in mice. J Comp Neurol. 2017 May 1;525(7):1668-1684. PMC5806522

Maski K, Steinhart E, Williams D, Scammell T, Flygare J, McCleary K, Gow M. Listening to the Patient Voice in Narcolepsy: Diagnostic Delay, Disease Burden, and Treatment Efficacy. J Clin Sleep Med. 2017 Mar 15;13(3):419-425. PMC5337589

Peng YJ, Zhang X, Gridina A, Chupikova I, McCormick DL, Thomas RJ, Scammell TE, Kim G, Vasavda C, Nanduri J, Kumar GK, Semenza GL, Snyder SH, Prabhakar NR. Complementary roles of gasotransmitters CO and H2S in sleep apnea. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Feb 7;114(6):1413-1418. PMC5307452

Mahoney CE, Agostinelli LJ, Brooks JN, Lowell BB, Scammell TE. GABAergic
Neurons of the Central Amygdala Promote Cataplexy. J Neurosci. 2017 Apr
12;37(15):3995-4006. PMC5391681

Alexandre C, Latremoliere A, Ferreira A, Miracca G, Yamamoto M, Scammell TE, Woolf CJ. Decreased alertness due to sleep loss increases pain sensitivity in mice. Nat Med. 2017 Jun;23(6):768-774. PMC5798598

Schoch SF, Werth E, Poryazova R, Scammell TE, Baumann CR, Imbach LL.
Dysregulation of Sleep Behavioral States in Narcolepsy. Sleep. 2017 Dec 1;40(12). PMID: 29029348

Williams RH, Chee MJ, Kroeger D, Ferrari LL, Maratos-Flier E, Scammell TE, Arrigoni E. Optogenetic-mediated release of histamine reveals distal and autoregulatory mechanisms for controlling arousal. J Neurosci. 2014;34(17):6023-9. PMC3996219

Burgess CR, Oishi Y, Mochizuki T, Peever JH, Scammell TE. Amygdala lesions reduce cataplexy in orexin knock-out mice. J Neurosci. 2013;33(23):9734-42.PMC3704329

Oishi Y, Williams RH, Agostinelli L, Arrigoni E, Fuller PM, Mochizuki T,
Saper CB, Scammell TE. Role of the medial prefrontal cortex in cataplexy. J Neurosci. 2013;33(23):9743-51. PMC3714797

Kantor S, Mochizuki T, Lops SN, Ko B, Clain E, Clark E, Yamamoto M, Scammell TE. Orexin gene therapy restores the timing and maintenance of wakefulness in narcoleptic mice. Sleep. 2013 Aug 1;36(8):1129-38. PMC3700709

Valko PO, Gavrilov YV, Yamamoto M, Reddy H, Haybaeck J, Mignot E, Baumann CR, Scammell TE. Increase of histaminergic tuberomammillary neurons in narcolepsy. Ann Neurol. 2013 Dec;74(6):794-804. PMID: 24006291

Weng FJ, Williams RH, Hawryluk JM, Lu J, Scammell TE, Saper CB, Arrigoni E.Carbachol excites sublaterodorsal nucleus neurons projecting to the spinal cord. J Physiol. 2014 Apr 1;592(7):1601-17.PMC3979614

Wamsley E, Donjacour CE, Scammell TE, Lammers GJ, Stickgold R. Delusional
confusion of dreaming and reality in narcolepsy. Sleep. 2014 Feb 1;37(2):419-22. PMC3900627

Poli F, Overeem S, Lammers GJ, Plazzi G, Lecendreux M, Bassetti CL, Dauvilliers Y, Keene D, Khatami R, Li Y, Mayer G, Nohynek H, Pahud B, Paiva T, Partinen M, Scammell TE, Shimabukuro T, Sturkenboom M, van Dinther K, Wiznitzer M, Bonhoeffer J. Narcolepsy as an adverse event following immunization: Case definition and guidelines for data collection, analysis and presentation.
Vaccine. 2012 Dec 16. [PMID: 23246545]

Imbach LL, Werth E, Kallweit U, Sarnthein J, Scammell TE, Baumann CR. Inter-hemispheric oscillations in human sleep. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e48660. [PMID: 23144920]
 
Scott MM, Marcus JN, Pettersen A, Birnbaum SG, Mochizuki T, Scammell TE, Nestler EJ, Elmquist JK, Lutter M. Hcrtr1 and 2 signaling differentially regulates depression-like behaviors.
Behav Brain Res. 2011 Sep 23;222(2):289-94. [PMID: 21377495]

Dimitrova A, Fronczek R, Van der Ploeg J, Scammell T, Gautam S, Pascual-Leone A, Lammers GJ. Reward-seeking behavior in human narcolepsy.
J Clin Sleep Med. 2011 Jun 15;7(3):293-300. [PMID: 21677900]

Mochizuki T, Arrigoni E, Marcus JN, Clark EL, Yamamoto M, Honer M, Borroni E, Lowell BB, Elmquist JK, Scammell TE. Orexin receptor 2 expression in the posterior hypothalamus rescues sleepiness in narcoleptic mice.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Mar 15;108(11):4471-6. [PMID: 21368172]

Scammell TE, Matheson JK, Honda M, Thannickal TC, Siegel JM. Coexistence of narcolepsy and Alzheimer's disease.
Neurobiol Aging. 2011 Jan 21. [PMID: 21257235]

Diniz Behn CG, Klerman EB, Mochizuki T, Lin SC, Scammell TE. Abnormal sleep/wake dynamics in orexin knockout mice.
Sleep. 2010 Mar;33(3):297-306.  [PMID: 20337187]

Baumann CR, Bassetti CL, Valko PO, Haybaeck J, Keller M, Clark E, Stocker R, Tolnay M, Scammell TE. Loss of hypocretin (orexin) neurons with traumatic brain injury.
Ann Neurol. 2009 Oct;66(4):555-9. [PMID: 19847903]

Kantor S, Mochizuki T, Janisiewicz AM, Clark E, Nishino S, Scammell TE. Orexin neurons are necessary for the circadian control of REM sleep.
Sleep. 2009 Sep;32(9):1127-34. [PMID: 19750917]

Clark EL, Baumann CR, Cano G, Scammell TE, Mochizuki T. Feeding-elicited cataplexy in orexin knockout mice.
Neuroscience. 2009 Jul 21;161(4):970-7. Epub 2009 Apr 8. [PMID: 19362119]

Scammell TE, Willie JT, Guilleminault C, Siegel JM; International Working Group on Rodent Models of Narcolepsy. A consensus definition of cataplexy in mouse models of narcolepsy.
Sleep. 2009 Jan 1;32(1):111-6. [PMID: 19189786]

Diniz Behn CG, Kopell N, Brown EN, Mochizuki T, Scammell TE.  Delayed orexin signaling consolidates wakefulness and sleep: physiology and modeling.
J Neurophysiol. 2008 Jun;99(6):3090-103. [PMID: 18417630]

Baumann CR, Clark EL, Pedersen NP, Hecht JL, Scammell TE. Do enteric neurons make hypocretin?
Regul Pept. 2008 Apr 10;147(1-3):1-3. [PMID: 18191238 ]

España, R, McCormack, S, Mochizuki, T,  Scammell, TE. Running and the effects of running wheels in orexin knockout mice.
Sleep. 2007 Nov 1;30(11):1417-25. [PMID: 18041476]

Diniz Behn, C, Brown, EN, Scammell, TE, Kopell, N. A mathematical model of network dynamics governing mouse sleep-wake behavior.
J Neurophysiol. 2007 Jun;97(6):3828-40. Epub 2007 Apr 4. [PMID: 17409167]

Scammell TE, Saper CB. Orexins: looking forward to sleep, back at addiction.
 Nat Med. 2007 Feb;13(2):126-8. [PMID: 17290266]

Mochizuki, M, Klerman, EB, Sakurai, T,  Scammell, TE. Elevated body temperature during sleep in orexin knockout mice.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006 Sep;291(3):R533-40. [PMID: 16556901]

Grady, S, Nishino, S, Czeisler, C, Hepner, D,  Scammell, TE. Diurnal variation in CSF orexin-A in healthy male subjects.
Sleep. 2006 Mar 1;29(3):295-7. [PMID: 16553014]

Scammell TE. The frustrating and mostly fruitless search for an autoimmune cause of narcolepsy.
 Sleep. 2006 May 1;29(5):601-2. [PMID: 16774147]

Yoshida K, McCormack S, Espana RA, Crocker A, and Scammell TE. Afferents to the orexin neurons of the rat brain.
 J Comp Neurol. 2006 Feb 10;494(5):845-61. [PMID: 16374809]

Crocker, A, España, RA, Papadopoulou, M, Saper, CB, Faraco, J, Sakurai, T, Honda, M, Mignot, E, and Scammell, TE. Concomitant loss of dynorphin, NARP, and orexin in narcolepsy. Neurology. 2005 Oct 25;65(8):1184-8. Epub 2005 Sep 14. [PMID: 16247044]

Mochizuki T, Crocker A, McCormack S, Yanagisawa M, Sakurai T, and Scammell TE. Behavioral state instability in orexin knock-out mice.
J Neurosci. 2004 Jul 14;24(28):6291-300. [PMID: 15254084]

Scammell, TE, Thompson, MA, Saper, CB, and Greene, R. Focal deletion of the adenosine A1 receptor in adult mice using an adeno-associated viral vector.
 J Neurosci. 2003 Jul 2;23(13):5762-70. [PMID: 12843280]

Estabrooke, IV, McCarthy, MT, Ko, E, Chou, T, Chemelli, R, Yanagisawa, M, Saper, CB, Scammell, TE. Fos expression in orexin neurons varies with behavioral state.
J Neurosci. 2001 Mar 1;21(5):1656-62. [PMID: 11222656]

Scammell, TE, Estabrooke, IV, McCarthy, MT, Chemelli, R, Yanagisawa, M, Miller, MS, and Saper, CB. Hypothalamic arousal regions are activated during modafinil-induced wakefulness.
J Neurosci. 2000 Nov 15;20(22):8620-8. [PMID: 11069971]

Chemelli, RM, Willie, JT, Sinton, CM, Elmquist, JK, Scammell, T, Lee, C, Richardson, JA, Williams, SC, Xiong, Y, Kisanuki, Y, Fitch, TE, Nakazato, M, Hammer, RE, Saper, CB, and Yanagisawa, M. Narcolepsy in orexin knockout mice: molecular genetics of sleep regulation.
 Cell. 1999 Aug 20;98(4):437-51. [PMID: 10481909

Scammell, TE, Gerashchenko, D, Urade, Y, Onoe, H, Saper, C, Hayaishi, O. Activation of ventrolateral preoptic neurons by the somnogen prostaglandin D2.
 Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Jun 23;95(13):7754-9. [PMID: 9636223]

Reviews

Pillen S, Pizza F, Dhondt K, Scammell TE, Overeem S.Cataplexy and Its Mimics:
Clinical Recognition and Management. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2017
Jun;19(6):23. PMID: 28478511

Scammell TE, Arrigoni E, Lipton JO. Neural Circuitry of Wakefulness and Sleep.
Neuron. 2017 Feb 22;93(4):747-765.PMID: 28231463

Scammell TE. Narcolepsy. N Engl J Med. 2015 Dec 31;373(27):2654-62.PMID: 26716917.

Scammell TE. Overview of sleep: the neurologic processes of the sleep-wake
cycle. J Clin Psychiatry. 2015 May;76(5):e13.PMID: 26035194.

Reiter J, Katz E, Scammell TE, Maski K. Usefulness of a Nocturnal SOREMP for
Diagnosing Narcolepsy with Cataplexy in a Pediatric Population. Sleep. 2015 Jun
1;38(6):859-65. PMID: 25325489

Baumann CR, Mignot E, Lammers GJ, Overeem S, Arnulf I, Rye D, Dauvilliers Y,
Honda M, Owens JA, Plazzi G, Scammell TE. Challenges in diagnosing narcolepsy
without cataplexy: a consensus statement. Sleep. 2014 Jun 1;37(6):1035-42.PMID: 24882898

Saper CB, Scammell TE. Emerging therapeutics in sleep. Ann Neurol. 2013
Sep;74(3):435-40. PMID: 24038193.

Alexandre C, Andermann ML, Scammell TE. Control of arousal by the orexin
neurons. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2013 Oct;23(5):752-9. PMID: 23683477;

Poli F, Overeem S, Lammers GJ, Plazzi G, Lecendreux M, Bassetti CL,
Dauvilliers Y, Keene D, Khatami R, Li Y, Mayer G, Nohynek H, Pahud B, Paiva T,
Partinen M, Scammell TE, Shimabukuro T, Sturkenboom M, van Dinther K, Wiznitzer
M, Bonhoeffer J. Narcolepsy as an adverse event following immunization: case
definition and guidelines for data collection, analysis and presentation.
Vaccine. 2013 Jan 30;31(6):994-1007.PMID: 23246545.Burgess CR, Scammell TE. Narcolepsy: neural mechanisms of sleepiness and cataplexy. J Neurosci. 2012 Sep 5;32(36):12305-11. Review. [PMID: 22956821]

Saper CB, Romanovsky AA, Scammell TE. Neural circuitry engaged by prostaglandins during the sickness syndrome.
 Nat Neurosci. 2012 Jul 26;15(8):1088-95. Review. [PMID: 22837039]

España RA, Scammell TE. Sleep neurobiology from a clinical perspective.
 Sleep. 2011 Jul 1;34(7):845-58. Review. [PMID: 21731134]

Scammell TE, Winrow CJ. Orexin receptors: pharmacology and therapeutic opportunities.
 Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2011 Feb 10;51:243-66. Review. [PMID: 21034217]

Saper CB, Fuller PM, Pedersen NP, Lu J, Scammell TE. Sleep state switching.
 Neuron. 2010 Dec 22;68(6):1023-42. Review. [PMID: 21172606]

Arrigoni E, Mochizuki T, Scammell TE. Activation of the basal forebrain by the orexin/hypocretin neurones.
Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2010 Mar;198(3):223-35. Review. [PMID: 19723027]

Lim AS, Scammell TE. The trouble with Tribbles: do antibodies against TRIB2 cause narcolepsy?
Sleep. 2010 Jul;33(7):857-8. [PMID: 20614841]

Lammers GJ, Bassetti C, Billiard M, Black J, Broughton R, Dauvilliers Y, Ferini Strambi L, Garcia-Borreguero D, Goswami M, Högl B, Iranzo A, Jennum P, Khatami R, Lecendreux M, Mayer G, Mignot E, Montplaisir J, Nevsimalova S, Peraita-Adrados R, Plazzi G, Scammell T, Silber M, Sonka K, Tafti M, Thorpy M. Sodium oxybate is an effective and safe treatment for narcolepsy.
Sleep Med. 2010 Jan;11(1):105-6; author reply 106-8. [PMID: 19846338]

Scammell TE, Mochizuki T. Is low histamine a fundamental cause of sleepiness in narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia?
Sleep. 2009 Feb 1;32(2):133-4. [PMID: 19238797]

Baumann CR, Scammell TE, Bassetti CL. Parkinson's disease, sleepiness and hypocretin/orexin.
Brain. 2008 Mar;131(Pt 3):e91. [PMID: 17898005]

Saper, CB, Scammell, TE, and Lu, J. Hypothalamic regulation of sleep and circadian rhythms.
Nature. 2005 Oct 27;437(7063):1257-63. [PMID: 16251950]

Scammell, TE. The neurobiology, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy.
Ann Neurol. 2003 Feb;53(2):154-66. [PMID: 12557281]

Saper, CB, Chou, TC and Scammell, TE. The sleep switch: hypothalamic control of sleep and wakefulness.
Trends Neurosci. 2001 Dec;24(12):726-31. [PMID: 11718878]


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