Faculty Profile

In memoriam: Robert W. McCarley, MD

Robert W. McCarley, MD
Professor of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School
Professor, Department of Psychiatry, VA Boston Healthcare System

Administrative Title(s)

Head of the Harvard Department of Psychiatry, and Head of the Laboratory of Neuroscience, VA Boston Healthcare System

See publications


Address

Department of Psychiatry at VA Boston Healthcare System
940 Belmont St (116a)
Brockton, MA 02301
USA

Phone 774-826-2479
Phone 774-826-2485
Fax 508-586-0894

Email marie_fairbanks@hms.harvard.edu

Society Memberships

Sleep Research Society
American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Society of Neuroscience
American College Neuropsychopharmacology
American Psychiatric Association
Society of Biological Psychiatry
American Physiology Society

Research Unit(s)

Laboratory of Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry, VA Boston Healthcare System, VA Schizophrenia Center, VA Boston Healthcare System

Research Interests

Work in basic research has focused on how the brain controls behavior, especially that of sleep and wakefulness. The rapid eye movement (REM) sleep phase is present in all mammals and is of special interest to psychology and psychiatry because of its relationship to dreaming and to mood disorder. Research has examined REM sleep brainstem control mechanisms, both REM promotion by the reticular and cholinergic activity and its inhibition by aminergic activity, as well as recent studies of GABAergic influences on REM. Another line of investigation has indicated that adenosine acting in the basal forebrain is a key nonREM sleep factor, controlling the sleepiness that occurs after prolonged wakefulness by means of an inhibition of wakefulness-active neurons. The second messenger and molecular consequences of elevated adenosine may be useful in explaining "sleep debt", the long-term consequences of sleep restriction/deprivation. An intracellular cascade, triggered by adenosine acting at the A1 receptor, leads to increased adenosine A1 receptor production, further enhancing adenosine's sleep promoting effects. Recent work has been in animal models of the consequences of obstructive sleep apnea, examining the effects of sleep interruption and hypoxia. Another line of recent work is describing how the neuropeptide orexin acts in the control of sleep and wakefulness, and how interference with orexin production and receptor actions by siRNA and antisense increases REM sleep and causes behavioral cataplexy in animals.

This has focused on the neuroimaging and neurophysiology of schizophrenia. This work, spearheaded by a NEJM article in 1992 , let to the heightened recognition of the auditory and language-related areas of the brain in the superior temporal gyrus as the site of MRI neuroanatomic gray matter abnormalities (volume decreases compared with healthy controls). These MRI abnormalities were associated with clinical symptoms of formal thought disorder, as well as physiological and cognitive processing abnormalities indexed by the P300 evoked potential, including cognitive updating. Work in first episode patients has shown the specificity of these abnormalities to schizophrenic psychosis as contrasted with manic (affective) psychosis.  Investigation of the schizophrenia spectrum disorder of schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) has shown these individuals share many of the MRI and evoked potential abnormalities referable to the superior temporal gyrus, thus clearly indicating a biological root of this personality disorder. Recent work suggests that the superior temporal gyrus gray matter volume reduction in schizophrenia is progressive over the year and a half following the first hospital admission for psychosis, as is the overall neocortical gray matter volume reduction and CSF space increase. Heschl Gyrus progressive volume reductions are paralled by reduction in the mismatch negativity event-related potential. During the last decade (1990s), the Institute for Scientific Information found this laboratory’s 124 peer-reviewed publications (those citations with McCarley as author) to be the third ranked in the world in schizophrenia, trailing only the Institute of Psychiatry in London and the NIMH. The ISI also declared the 1992 NEJM article a “citation classic”.

Trainees

Jennifer I. Luebke, PhD, 1988-1992
Dean Salisbury, PhD, 1990-1997
Donald Rainnie, PhD, 1993 –2000
Chandlee Dickey, MD, 1994-2001
Geoffrey F. Potts, PhD, 1994-1998
Yoshio Hirayasu, MD, PhD, 1995-1999
Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen, MD, PhD, 1995-1997
Melissa Frumin, MD, MS, 1998-2000
Chang Uk Lee, MD, PhD, 1999-2000
Vijay Ramesh, PhD, 1999-2005
Kiyoto Kasai, MD, PhD, 2000-2002
Toshiaki Onitsuka, MD, PhD, 2000-2002
Madhvi Patil, MD, 2000-2001
Kevin M. Spencer, PhD, 2000-2003
Marek Kubicki, MD, PhD, 2001-2002
James T. McKenna, PhD, 2001-2006
Hae-Jeong Park, PhD, 2001-2003
Ritchie Brown, PhD, 2002-2004
Noriomi Kuroki, MD, 2002-2004
Jaime Tartar, PhD, 2004-2006
Takeshi Yoshida, MD, PhD, 2004-2005
Motoaki Nakamura, MD, PhD, 2003-2007
Lichao Chen, MD, PhD, 2004-2007
Ryuichiro Hashimoto PhD, 2004-2007
Tsuyoshi Araki, MD, 2005-2007
Toshiro Kawashima, MD, PhD, 2005-2008
Joel S. Snyder, PhD, 2005-2007
Takeshi Asami, MD, PhD, 2008-2011
Toshiyuki Otani, MD, PhD, 2008-2011
Markus Dworak, PhD, 2008-2010
San-Hyuk Lee, MD, PhD, 2009-2010
Tatsui Otsuka, MD, PhD, 2009-2011
Youngsoo Kim, PhD, 2006-2010
Tae Kim, MD, PhD, 2008-Present
James McNally, PhD, 2008-Present
Taiga Hosokawa, MD, Ph.D, 2009-Present
Chun Yang, PhD, 2009-Present
Tomohide Roppongi, MD, PhD, 2010-Present
Meina Quan, MD, PhD, 2010-Present
Yoji Hirano, MD, PhD, 2011-Present
Naoya Oribe, MD, PhD, 2011-Present

Research Funding

R01 MH39683     NIH/NIMH    PI: McCarley    9/1/87-12/31/03
Synaptic basis of sleep cycle control
Brainstem and basal forebrain control of REM and nonREM sleep. NIH/NIMH, Orexin and the Control of Sleep and Wakefulness.

Veterans Administration Merit Review    PI: McCarley     10/01/09-09/30/14
MRI Anatomy of Schizophrenia
Longitudinal Structural MRI studies in first-episode and chronic schizophrenia. The chronic schizophrenia study is just ending as the current proposed program project begins.

R01 MH52807         PI: McCarley     8/1/05-4/30/12
Biological Basis of Schizotypal Personality Disorder
Neuropsychological ERP and MRI studies of schizotypal personality disorder subjects.

Veterans Administration     PI: McCarley & Shenton         10/1/06-12/31/11
Neuroimaging insights into Schizophrenia & Treatment Implications
Veterans Administration Schizophrenia Center award for pilot studies related to schizophrenia, a continuation of the previous REAP study.

Veterans Administration    PI: McCarley     4/1/07-9/1/11 Orexinergic and GABAergic Mechanisms of REM Sleep Control
To understand the physiological and pharmacological mechanisms by which orexin modulates behavioral state.

R01 MH40799-09     PI: McCarley     7/1/07 – 06/30/12 (Parent)
9/30/09-8/31/11 (ARRA)
Neurophysiological Studies of Schizophrenia
Parent Grant: To understand the neurophysiological basis of schizophrenia.
Supplement: The overall goal is the creation of an in vitro animal model of high frequency (gamma band,
approx 40Hz) neocortical oscillations. This allows us to test the neurobiological model underlying our clinical work documenting the developmental time course of gamma band abnormalities in schizophrenia patients.

1P50MH080272-01    PI: McCarley     4/1/07 – 3/31/12
Vulnerability to Progression in Schizophrenia  (Proj 3)
This is a NIMH CIDAR program project application studying vulnerability to progression in schizophrenia. The CIDAR is a longitudinal study of a population of subjects from Beth Israel Deaconess with schizophrenia and schizophrenia prodrome, and Project 3 focuses on collection of neurophysiological data. McCarley also acts as PI for the overall CIDAR.

PO1HL095491    PI: Saper     04/01/09-03/31/14
Neuronal Control Mechanisms of the Ascending Sleep Arousal Pathway
This project investigates the neural mechanisms that mediate the arousals from sleep that are characteristic of sleep apnea. This project uses single unit recordings of neurons in the medial parabrachial nucleus and the basal forebrain during natural sleep cycles and during arousals from sleep provoked by hypercarbia, thus mimicking the conditions of sleep apnea.

This research has been very much of a laboratory team effort, as shown by the coauthors on the publications. This team's superb effort has been recognized by the lab chief's having received the Distinguished Scientist Award from the Sleep Research Society, the William C. Dement Award for Academic Achievement by the Amer. Academy of Sleep Medicine (to be given in June, 2006), the top research prize, the Middleton Award, from the Dept. of Veterans Affairs Medical Research Service, and the top research Award of the American Psychiatric Association.

Selected Publications

Original Articles

McCoy JG, Christie MA, Kim Y, Brennan R, Poeta DL, McCarley RW, Strecker RE. Chronic sleep restriction impairs spatial memory in rats.
Neuroreport. 2013 Jan 23;24(2):91-5. [PMID: 23238166]

Chen L, McKenna JT, Bolortuya Y, Brown RE, McCarley RW. Knockdown of orexin type 2 receptor in the lateral pontomesencephalic tegmentum of rats increases REM sleep.
Eur J Neurosci. 2013 Jan 3. [PMID: 23282008]

Asami T, Saito Y, Whitford TJ, Makris N, Niznikiewicz M, McCarley RW, Shenton ME, Kubicki M. Abnormalities of middle longitudinal fascicle and disorganization in patients with schizophrenia.
Schizophr Res. 2013 Jan 3. [PMID: 23290607]

Lee SH, Kubicki M, Asami T, Seidman LJ, Goldstein JM, Mesholam-Gately RI, McCarley RW, Shenton ME. Extensive white matter abnormalities in patients with first-episode schizophrenia: A diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study.
Schizophr Res. 2013 Jan 2. [PMID: 23290268]

McKenna JT, Yang C, Franciosi S, Winston S, Abarr KK, Rigby MS, Yanagawa Y, McCarley RW, Brown RE. Distribution and intrinsic membrane properties of basal forebrain GABAergic and parvalbumin neurons in the mouse.
J Comp Neurol. 2012 Dec 17. [PMID: 23254904]

Dickey CC, Vu MA, Voglmaier MM, Niznikiewicz MA, McCarley RW, Panych LP. Prosodic abnormalities in schizotypal personality disorder.
Schizophr Res. 2012 Dec;142(1-3):20-30. [PMID: 23068317]

Pasternak O, Westin CF, Bouix S, Seidman LJ, Goldstein JM, Woo TU, Petryshen TL, Mesholam-Gately RI, McCarley RW, Kikinis R, Shenton ME, Kubicki M. Excessive
Extracellular Volume Reveals a Neurodegenerative Pattern in Schizophrenia Onset.
J Neurosci. 2012 Nov 28;32(48):17365-17372. [PMID: 23197727]

Rosenberger G, Nestor PG, Oh JS, Levitt JJ, Kindleman G, Bouix S, Fitzsimmons J, Niznikiewicz M, Westin CF, Kikinis R, McCarley RW, Shenton ME, Kubicki M. Anterior limb of the internal capsule in schizophrenia: a diffusion tensor tractography study.
Brain Imaging Behav. 2012 Sep;6(3):417-25. [PMID: 22415192]

Nestor PG, Kubicki M, Nakamura M, Niznikiewicz M, Levitt JJ, Shenton ME, McCarley RW. Neuropsychological variability, symptoms, and brain imaging in chronic schizophrenia.
Brain Imaging Behav. 2012 Jul 25. [PMID: 23011383]

Pinheiro AP, Del Re E, Nestor PG, McCarley RW, Gonçalves OF, Niznikiewicz M. Interactions between mood and the structure of semantic memory: event-related potentials evidence.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2012 Jun 19.[PMID: 22434931]

Kim Y, Bolortuya Y, Chen L, Basheer R, McCarley RW, Strecker RE. Decoupling of sleepiness from sleep time and intensity during chronic sleep restriction: evidence for a role of the adenosine system.
Sleep. 2012 Jun 1;35(6):861-9. [PMID: 22654205]

Nestor PG, Nakamura M, Niznikiewicz M, Thompson E, Levitt JJ, Choate V, Shenton ME, McCarley RW. In search of the functional neuroanatomy of sociality: MRI subdivisions of orbital frontal cortex and social cognition.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2012 Apr 24.[PMID: 22345366]

Levitt JJ, Alvarado JL, Nestor PG, Rosow L, Pelavin PE, McCarley RW, Kubicki  M, Shenton ME. Fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity: diffusion measures of white matter abnormalities in the anterior limb of the internal capsule in schizophrenia.
Schizophr Res. 2012 Apr;136(1-3):55-62. [PMID: 22019073]

Davidson CA, Kuroki N, Alvarado JL, Niznikiewicz MA, McCarley RW, Levitt JJ. An MRI study of septi pellucidi in relation to hippocampus volume and fornix integrity in schizophrenia.
Schizophr Res. 2012 Feb;134(2-3):165-70. [PMID: 22177349]

Mulert C, Kirsch V, Whitford TJ, Alvarado J, Pelavin P, McCarley RW, Kubicki  M, Salisbury DF, Shenton ME. Hearing voices: a role of interhemispheric auditory  connectivity?
World J Biol Psychiatry. 2012 Feb;13(2):153-8. [PMID: 21623667]

Liu T, Pinheiro AP, Deng G, Nestor PG, McCarley RW, Niznikiewicz MA. Electrophysiological insights into processing nonverbal emotional vocalizations. 
Neuroreport. 2012 Jan 25;23(2):108-12. [PMID: 22134115]

Asami T, Bouix S, Whitford TJ, Shenton ME, Salisbury DF, McCarley RW. Longitudinal loss of gray matter volume in patients with first-episode schizophrenia: DARTEL automated analysis and ROI validation.
Neuroimage. 2012 Jan 16;59(2):986-96. [PMID: 21924364]

Liu T, Pinheiro A, Zhao Z, Nestor PG, McCarley RW, Niznikiewicz MA. Emotional cues during simultaneous face and voice processing: electrophysiological insights.
PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e31001. [PMID: 22383987]

Pinheiro AP, McCarley RW, Thompson E, Gonçalves OF, Niznikiewicz M. From semantics to feelings: how do individuals with schizophrenia rate the emotional valence of words?
Schizophr Res Treatment. 2012;2012:431823. [PMID: 22966437]

Nguyen AD, Pelavin PE, Shenton ME, Chilakamarri P, McCarley RW, Nestor PG, Levitt JJ. Olfactory sulcal depth and olfactory bulb volume in patients with schizophrenia: an MRI study. Brain Imaging Behav. 2011 Dec;5(4):252-61. [PMID: 21728040]

Whitford TJ, Savadjiev P, Kubicki M, O'Donnell LJ, Terry DP, Bouix S, Westin CF, Schneiderman JS, Bobrow L, Rausch AC, Niznikiewicz M, Nestor PG, Pantelis C, Wood SJ, McCarley RW, Shenton ME. Fiber geometry in the corpus callosum in schizophrenia: evidence for transcallosal misconnection.
Schizophr Res. 2011 Oct;132(1):69-74. [PMID: 21831601]

Dickey CC, Panych LP, Voglmaier MM, Niznikiewicz MA, Terry DP, Murphy C, Zacks R, Shenton ME, McCarley RW. Facial emotion recognition and facial affect display in schizotypal personality disorder.
Schizophr Res. 2011 Sep;131(1-3):242-9. [PMID: 21640557]

Kalinchuk AV, McCarley RW, Porkka-Heiskanen T, Basheer R. The time course of adenosine, nitric oxide (NO) and inducible NO synthase changes in the brain with sleep loss and their role in the NREM sleep homeostatic cascade.
J. Neurochem. 2011 116:260-272. [PMID: 21062286]

Choi H, Kubicki M, Whitford TJ, Alvarado JL, Terry DP, Niznikiewicz M, McCarley RW, Kwon JS, Shenton ME. Diffusion tensor imaging of anterior commissural fibers in patients with schizophrenia.
Schizophr Res. 2011 Aug;130(1-3):78-85. [PMID: 21561738]

Dworak M, McCarley RW, Kim T, Kalinchuk AV, Basheer R. Replies to commentaries
on ATP changes during sleep.
Sleep. 2011 Jul 1;34(7):841-3. [PMID: 21731133]

Mulert C, Kirsch V, Whitford TJ, Alvarado J, Pelavin P, McCarley RW, Kubicki M, Salisbury DF, Shenton ME. Hearing voices: A role of interhemispheric auditory connectivity?
World J Biol Psychiatry. 2011 May 30. [PMID: 21623667]

Rathi Y, Kubicki M, Bouix S, Westin CF, Goldstein J, Seidman L, Mesholam-Gately R, McCarley RW, Shenton ME. Statistical analysis of fiber bundles using multi-tensor tractography: application to first-episode schizophrenia.
Magn Reson Imaging. 2011 May;29(4):507-15. [PMID: 21277725]

Spencer KM, Nestor PG, Valdman O, Niznikiewicz MA, Shenton ME, McCarley RW. Enhanced
facilitation of spatial attention in schizophrenia.
Neuropsychol 2011;25:76-85. [PMID: 20919764]

Kubicki M, Alvarado JL, Westin CF, Tate DF, Markant D, Terry DP, Whitford TJ, De Siebenthal J, Bouix S, McCarley RW, Kikinis R, Shenton ME. Stochastic tractography study of Inferior Frontal Gyrus anatomical connectivity in schizophrenia.
Neuroimage. 2011 Apr 15;55(4):1657-64. [PMID: 21256966]

Whitford TJ, Kubicki M, Ghorashi S, Schneiderman JS, Hawley KJ, McCarley RW, Shenton ME, Spencer KM. Predicting inter-hemispheric transfer time from the diffusion properties of the corpus callosum in healthy individuals and schizophrenia patients: a combined ERP and DTI study.
Neuroimage. 2011 Feb 1;54(3):2318-29. [PMID: 2097794]

Ward CP, McCoy JG, McKenna JT, Connolly NP, McCarley RW, Strecker RE. Spatial learning and memory deficits following exposure to 24 h of sleep fragmentation or intermittent hypoxia in a rat model of obstructive sleep apnea.
Brain Res. 2009 Oct 19;1294:128-37. [PMID: 19643093]

Mulert C, Kirsch V, Pascual-Marqui R, McCarley RW, Spencer KM. Long-range synchrony of
gamma oscillations and auditory hallucination symptoms in schizophrenia.
Int J Psychophysiol. 2011 Jan;79(1):55-63. [PMID: 20713096]

Nestor PG, Niznikiewicz M, McCarley RW. Distinct contribution of working memory and social comprehension failures in neuropsychological impairment in schizophrenia.
J Nerv Ment Dis. 2010 198(3):206-12. [PMID: 20215998.]

Nestor PG, Kubicki M, Nakamura M, Niznikiewicz M, McCarley RW, Shenton ME. Comparing
prefrontal gray and white matter contributions to intelligence and decision making in schizophrenia and healthy controls.
Neuropsychology. 2010 24(1):121-9. [PMID: 20063953]

Chen L, McKenna JT, Leonard MZ, Yanagawa Y, McCarley RW, Brown RE. GAD67-GFP knockin
mice have normal sleep-wake patterns and sleep homeostasis.
Neuroreport. 2010 21(3):216-20. [PMID: 20051926]

Tartar JL, McKenna JT, Ward CP, McCarley RW, Strecker RE, Brown RE. Sleep fragmentation
reduces hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cell excitability and response to adenosine.
Neurosci Lett. 2010 Jan 18;469(1):1-5. [PMID: 19914331]

McCoy JG, McKenna JT, Connolly NP, Poeta DL, Ling L, McCarley RW, Strecker RE. One week
of exposure to intermittent hypoxia impairs attentional set-shifting in rats.
Behav Brain Res. 2010 Jun 26;210(1):123-6. [PMID: 20122971]

Dickey CC, Morocz IA, Minney D, Niznikiewicz MA, Voglmaier MM, Panych LP, Khan U, Zacks
R, Terry DP, Shenton ME, McCarley RW. Factors in sensory processing of prosody in schizotypal
personality disorder: an fMRI experiment.
Schizophr Res. 2010 Aug;121(1-3):75-89. [PMID: 20362418]

Whitford TJ, Kubicki M, Schneiderman JS, O'Donnell LJ, King R, Alvarado JL, Khan U, Markant D, Nestor PG, Niznikiewicz M, McCarley RW, Westin CF, Shenton ME. Corpus callosum abnormalities and their association with psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia.
Biol Psychiatry. 2010 Jul 1;68(1):70-7 [PMID: 20494336]

Niznikiewicz M, Mittal MS, Nestor PG, McCarley RW. Abnormal inhibitory processes in semantic
networks in schizophrenia.
Int J Psychophysiol. 2010 Feb;75(2):133-40. [PMID: 19840822]
 
Mulert C, Leicht G, Hepp P, Kirsch V, Karch S, Pogarell O, Reiser M, Hegerl U, Jäger L, Moller
HJ, McCarley RW. Single-trial coupling of the gamma-band response and the corresponding BOLD signal.
Neuroimage. 2010 Feb 1;49(3):2238-47. [PMID: 19878729]

Christie MA, McCarley RW, Strecker RE. Twenty-four hours, or five days, of continuous sleep deprivation or experimental sleep fragmentation do not alter thirst or motivation for water reward in rats.
Behav Brain Res. 2010 Dec 25;214(2):180-6. [PMID: 20493906]

Kalinchuk AV, McCarley RW, Porkka-Heiskanen T, Basheer R. Sleep deprivation triggers inducible nitric oxide-dependent nitric oxide production in wake-active basal forebrain neurons.
J Neurosci. 2010 Oct 6;30(40):13254-64. [PMID 20926651]

Woo TU, Spencer K, McCarley RW. Gamma oscillation deficits and the onset and early progression of schizophrenia.
Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2010 Jun;18(3):173-89. [PMID: 20415633]

Salisbury DF, Collins KC, McCarley RW. Reductions in the N1 and P2 Auditory Event-Related
Potentials in First-Hospitalized and Chronic Schizophrenia.
Schizophr Bull. 2010;36(5):991-1000 [PMID: 19282472]

Rathi Y, Malcolm J, Michailovich O, Goldstein J, Seidman L, McCarley RW, Westin CF, Shenton ME. Biomarkers for identifying first-episode schizophrenia patients using diffusion weighted imaging.
Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv. 2010;13(Pt 1):657-65. [PMID: 20879287]

Kikinis Z, Fallon JH, Niznikiewicz M, Nestor P, Davidson C, Bobrow L, Pelavin PE, Fischl B, Yendiki A, McCarley RW, Kikinis R, Kubicki M, Shenton ME. Gray matter volume reduction in
rostral middle frontal gyrus in patients with chronic schizophrenia.
Schizophr Res. 2010 Nov;123(2-3):153-9. [PMID: 20822884]

Dworak M, McCarley RW, Kim T, Kalinchuk AV, Basheer R. Sleep and brain energy levels: ATP
changes during sleep.
J Neurosci. 2010 Jun 30;30(26):9007-16. [PMID: 20592221]

Yoshida T, McCarley RW, Niznikiewicz MA. Letter to Editor.
Schizophr Res. 2010 Jun 14. [PMID: 20554433]

Chen L, McKenna JT, Bolortuya Y, Winston S, Thakkar MM, Basheer R, Brown RE, McCarley RW. Knockdown of orexin type 1 receptor in rat locus coeruleus increases REM sleep during the dark period.
Eur J Neurosci. 2010 Nov;32(9):1528-36. [PMID: 21089218]

McKenna JT, Cordeira JW, Jeffrey BA, Ward CP, Winston S, McCarley RW, Strecker RE. c-Fos protein expression is increased in cholinergic neurons of the rodent basal forebrain during spontaneous and induced wakefulness.
Brain Res Bull. 2009 Dec 16;80(6):382-8. [PMID: 19716862]

Ward CP, McCoy JG, McKenna JT, Connolly NP, McCarley RW, Strecker RE. Spatial learning and memory deficits following exposure to 24 h of sleep fragmentation or intermittent hypoxia in a rat model of obstructive sleep apnea.
Brain Res. 2009 Oct 19;1294:128-37. [PMID: 19643093]

Niznikiewicz M, Mittal MS, Nestor PG, McCarley RW. Abnormal inhibitory
processes in semantic networks in schizophrenia. Int J Psychophysiol. 2009 Oct
16. [PMID: 19840822]

Chen L, Brown RE, McKenna JT, McCarley RW. Animal models of narcolepsy.
CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2009 Aug;8(4):296-308. [PMID: 19689311]

Yoshida T, McCarley RW, Nakamura M, Lee K, Koo MS, Bouix S, Salisbury DF, Morra L, Shenton ME, Niznikiewicz MA. A prospective longitudinal volumetric MRI study of superior temporal gyrus gray matter and amygdala-hippocampal complex in chronic schizophrenia.
Schizophr Res. 2009 Aug;113(1):84-94. [PMID: 19524408]

Spencer KM, Niznikiewicz MA, Nestor PG, Shenton ME, McCarley RW. Left auditory cortex gamma synchronization and auditory hallucination symptoms in schizophrenia.
BMC Neurosci. 2009 Jul 20;10:85. [PMID: 19619324]

Nestor PG, Klein K, Pomplun M, Niznikiewicz M, McCarley RW. Gaze cueing of attention in schizophrenia: Individual differences in neuropsychological functioning and symptoms.
J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2009 Jun 18:1-9. [PMID: 19544134]

Ward CP, McCarley RW, Strecker RE. Experimental sleep fragmentation impairs spatial reference but not working memory in Fischer/Brown Norway rats.
J Sleep Res. 2009 Jun;18(2):238-44. [PMID: 19645967]

Voglmaier MM, Seidman LJ, Niznikiewicz MA, Madan A, Dickey CC, Shenton ME, McCarley RW. Dichotic listening in schizotypal personality disorder: Evidence for gender and laterality effects.
Schizophr Res. 2009 May 21. [PMID: 19464150]

Oh JS, Kubicki M, Rosenberger G, Bouix S, Levitt JJ, McCarley RW, Westin CF, Shenton ME. Thalamo-frontal white matter alterations in chronic schizophrenia: a quantitative diffusion tractography study.
Hum Brain Mapp. 2009 May 15;30(11):3812-3825. [PMID: 19449328]

Kawashima T, Nakamura M, Bouix S, Kubicki M, Salisbury DF, Westin CF, McCarley RW, Shenton ME. Uncinate fasciculus abnormalities in recent onset schizophrenia and affective psychosis: a diffusion tensor imaging study.
Schizophr Res. 2009 May;110(1-3):119-26. [PMID: 19328656]

Levitt JJ, Styner M, Niethammer M, Bouix S, Koo MS, Voglmaier MM, Dickey CC, Niznikiewicz MA, Kikinis R, McCarley RW, Shenton ME. Shape abnormalities of caudate nucleus in schizotypal personality disorder.
Schizophr Res. 2009 May;110(1-3):127-39. [PMID: 19328654]

Niznikiewicz MA, Spencer KM, Dickey C, Voglmaier M, Seidman LJ, Shenton ME, McCarley RW. Abnormal pitch mismatch negativity in individuals with schizotypal personality disorder.
Schizophr Res. 2009 May;110(1-3):188-93. Epub 2009 Mar 27. [PMID: 19327968]

Hashimoto RI, Lee K, Preus A, McCarley RW, Wible CG. An fMRI Study of Functional Abnormalities in the Verbal Working Memory System and the Relationship to Clinical Symptoms in Chronic Schizophrenia.
Cereb Cortex. 2009 Apr 24. [PMID: 19395526]

Salisbury DF, Collins KC, McCarley RW. Reductions in the N1 and P2 Auditory Event-Related Potentials in First-Hospitalized and Chronic Schizophrenia.
Schizophr Bull. 2009 Mar 12. [PMID: 19282472]

Elmenhorst D, Basheer R, McCarley RW, Bauer A. Sleep deprivation increases A(1) adenosine receptor density in the rat brain.
Brain Res. 2009 Mar 3;1258:53-8. Epub 2008 Dec 31. [PMID: 19146833]

Lee K, Yoshida T, Kubicki M, Bouix S, Westin CF, Kindlmann G, Niznikiewicz M, Cohen A, McCarley RW, Shenton ME. Increased diffusivity in superior temporal gyrus in patients with schizophrenia: a Diffusion Tensor Imaging study.
Schizophr Res. 2009 Mar;108(1-3):33-40. Epub 2009 Jan 9. [PMID: 19135872]

Tartar JL, Ward CP, Cordeira JW, Legare SL, Blanchette AJ, McCarley RW, Strecker RE. Experimental sleep fragmentation and sleep deprivation in rats increases exploration in an open field test of anxiety while increasing plasma corticosterone levels.
Behav Brain Res. 2009 Feb 11;197(2):450-3. Epub 2008 Sep 2. [PMID: 18805441]

Whitfield-Gabrieli S, Thermenos HW, Milanovic S, Tsuang MT, Faraone SV, McCarley RW, Shenton ME, Green AI, Nieto-Castanon A, LaViolette P, Wojcik J, Gabrieli JD, Seidman LJ. Hyperactivity and hyperconnectivity of the default
network in schizophrenia and in first-degree relatives of persons with schizophrenia.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Jan 27;106(4):1279-84. Epub 2009 Jan 21. Erratum in: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Mar 17;106(11):4572. [PMID: 19164577]

Segall JM, Turner JA, van Erp TG, White T, Bockholt HJ, Gollub RL, Ho BC, Magnotta V, Jung RE, McCarley RW, Schulz SC, Lauriello J, Clark VP, Voyvodic JT, Diaz MT, Calhoun VD. Voxel-based morphometric multisite collaborative study on schizophrenia.
Schizophr Bull. 2009 Jan;35(1):82-95. Epub 2008 Nov 7. [PMID: 18997157]

Fitzsimmons J, Kubicki M, Smith K, Bushell G, Estepar RS, Westin CF, Nestor PG, Niznikiewicz MA, Kikinis R, McCarley RW, Shenton ME. Diffusion tractography of the fornix in schizophrenia.
Schizophr Res. 2009 Jan;10 (1):39-46. Epub 2008 Nov 30. [PMID: 19046624]

Christie MA, McKenna JT, Connolly NP, McCarley RW, Strecker RE. 24 hours of sleep deprivation in the rat increases sleepiness and decreases vigilance: introduction of the rat-psychomotor vigilance task.
J Sleep Res. 2008 Dec;17(4):376-84. Epub 2008 Oct 6. Erratum in: J Sleep Res. 2009 Mar;18(1):143. [PMID: 19021853]

McKenna JT, Cordeira JW, Christie MA, Tartar JL, McCoy JG, Lee E, McCarley RW, Strecker RE. Assessing sleepiness in the rat: a multiple sleep latencies test compared to polysomnographic measures of sleepiness.
J Sleep Res. 2008 Dec;17(4):365-75. Epub 2008 Sep 13. [PMID: 18823428]

Kubicki M, Styner M, Bouix S, Gerig G, Markant D, Smith K, Kikinis R, McCarley RW, Shenton ME. Reduced interhemispheric connectivity in schizophrenia-tractography based segmentation of the corpus callosum.
Schizophr Res. 2008 Dec;106(2-3):125-131. [PMID: 18829262]

Fitzsimmons J, Kubicki M, Smith K, Bushell G, Estepar RS, Westin CF, Nestor
PG, Niznikiewicz MA, Kikinis R, McCarley RW, Shenton ME. Diffusion tractography of the fornix in schizophrenia.
Schizophr Res. 2008 Nov 29. [PMID: 19046624]

Kalinchuk AV, McCarley RW, Stenberg D, Porkka-Heiskanen T, Basheer R. The role of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons in adenosine-mediated homeostatic control of sleep: lessons from 192 IgG-saporin lesions.
Neuroscience. 2008 Nov 11;157(1):238-53. [PMID: 18805464]

Segall JM, Turner JA, van Erp TG, White T, Bockholt HJ, Gollub RL, Ho BC,
Magnotta V, Jung RE, McCarley RW, Schulz SC, Lauriello J, Clark VP, Voyvodic JT, Diaz MT, Calhoun VD. Voxel-based Morphometric Multisite Collaborative Study on Schizophrenia.
Schizophr Bull. 2008 Nov 7. [PMID: 18997157]

McGuire M, Tartar JL, Cao Y, McCarley RW, White DP, Strecker RE, Ling L. Sleep fragmentation impairs ventilatory long-term facilitation via adenosine A1 receptors.
J Physiol. 2008 Nov 1;586(Pt 21):5215-29. [PMID: 18787037]

Christie MA, McKenna JT, Connolly NP, McCarley RW, Strecker RE. 24 hours of sleep deprivation in the rat increases sleepiness and decreases vigilance: introduction of the rat-psychomotor vigilance task.
J Sleep Res. 2008 Oct 6. [PMID: 19021853]

Christie MA, Bolortuya Y, Chen LC, McKenna JT, McCarley RW, Strecker RE. Microdialysis elevation of adenosine in the basal forebrain produces vigilance impairments in the rat psychomotor vigilance task.
Sleep. 2008 Oct 1;31(10):1393-8. [PMID: 18853936]

McKenna JT, Cordeira JW, Christie MA, Tartar JL, McCoy JG, Lee E, McCarley RW, Strecker RE. Assessing sleepiness in the rat: a multiple sleep latencies test compared to polysomnographic measures of sleepiness.
J Sleep Res. 2008 Sep 13. [PMID: 18823428]

Tartar JL, Ward CP, Cordeira JW, Legare SL, Blanchette AJ, McCarley RW, Strecker RE. Experimental sleep ragmentation and sleep deprivation in rats increases exploration in an open field test of anxiety while increasing plasma corticosterone levels.
Behav Brain Res. 2008 Sep 2. [PMID: 18805441]

Spencer KM, Salisbury DF, Shenton ME, McCarley RW. Gamma-band auditory steady-state responses are impaired in first episode psychosis.
Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Sep 1;64(5):369-75. [PMID: 18400208]

Dickey CC, Morocz IA, Niznikiewicz MA, Voglmaier M, Toner S, Khan U, Dreusicke M, Yoo SS, Shenton ME, McCarley RW. Auditory processing abnormalities in schizotypal personality disorder: an fMRI experiment using tones of deviant pitch and duration.
Schizophr Res. 2008 Aug;103(1-3):26-39. [PMID: 18555666]

Koo MS, Levitt JJ, Salisbury DF, Nakamura M, Shenton ME, McCarley RW. A cross-sectional and longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study of cingulate gyrus gray matter volume abnormalities in first-episode schizophrenia and first-episode affective psychosis.
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008 Jul;65(7):746-60. [PMID: 18606948]

Rosenberger G, Kubicki M, Nestor PG, Connor E, Bushell GB, Markant D, Niznikiewicz M, Westin CF, Kikinis R, J Saykin A, McCarley RW, Shenton ME. Age-related deficits in fronto-temporal connections in schizophrenia: a diffusion tensor imaging study.
Schizophr Res. 2008 Jul;102(1-3):181-8. [PMID: 18504117]

Thakkar MM, Winston S, McCarley RW. Effect of microdialysis perfusion of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo-[5,4-c]pyridine-3-ol in the perifornical hypothalamus on sleep-wakefulness: Role of delta-subunit containing extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors.
Neuroscience. 2008 May 15;153(3):551-5. [PMID: 18406065

Spencer KM, Niznikiewicz MA, Shenton ME, McCarley RW. Sensory-evoked gamma oscillations in chronic schizophrenia.
Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Apr 15;63(8):744-7. [PMID: 18083143]

Nestor PG, Kubicki M, Niznikiewicz M, Gurrera RJ, McCarley RW, Shenton ME. Neuropsychological disturbance in schizophrenia: a diffusion tensor imaging study.
Neuropsychology. 2008 Mar;22(2):246-54. [PMID: 18331167]

AhnAllen CG, Nestor PG, Shenton ME, McCarley RW, Niznikiewicz MA. Early nicotine withdrawal and transdermal nicotine effects on neurocognitive performance in schizophrenia.
Schizophr Res. 2008 Mar;100(1-3):261-9. [PMID: 17884348]

Nakamura M, Nestor PG, Levitt JJ, Cohen AS, Kawashima T, Shenton ME, McCarley RW. Orbitofrontal volume deficit in schizophrenia and thought disorder.
Brain. 2008 Jan;131(Pt 1):180-95 [PMID: 18056163]

Brown RE, McKenna JT, Winston S, Basheer R, Yanagawa Y, Thakkar MM, McCarley RW. Characterization of GABAergic neurons in rapid-eye-movement sleep controlling regions of the brainstem reticular formation in GAD67-green fluorescent protein knock-in mice.
Eur J Neurosci. 2008 Jan;27(2):352-63. [PMID: 18215233]

McKenna JT, Tartar JL, Ward CP, Thakkar MM, Cordeira JW, McCarley RW, Strecker RE. Sleep fragmentation elevates behavioral, electrographic and neurochemical measures of sleepiness.
Neuroscience. 2007 Jun 8;146(4):1462-73. PMID: 17442498]

Salisbury DF, Kuroki N, Kasai K, Shenton ME, McCarley RW. Progressive and interrelated functional and structural evidence of post-onset brain reduction in schizophrenia.
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007 May;64(5):521-9. [PMID: 17485604]

Gurrera RJ, Nakamura M, Kubicki M, Dickey CC, Niznikiewicz MA, Voglmaier MM, McCarley RW, Shenton ME, Westin CF, Maier SE, Seidman LJ. The uncinate fasciculus and extraversion in schizotypal personality disorder: a diffusion tensor imaging study.
Schizophr Res. 2007 Feb;90(1-3):360-2. Epub 2006 Nov 28. [PMID: 17126532]

Dickey CC, McCarley RW, Xu ML, Seidman LJ, Voglmaier MM, Niznikiewicz MA, Connor E, Shenton ME. MRI abnormalities of the hippocampus and cavum septi pellucidi in females with schizotypal personality disorder.
Schizophr Res. 2007 Jan;89(1-3):49-58. Epub 2006 Oct 5. [PMID: 17027236]

Nestor PG, Kubicki M, Kuroki N, Gurrera, RJ, Niznikiewicz M, Sheton ME, McCarley RW. Episodic Memory and Neuroimaging in Hippocampus and Fornix in Chronic Schizphrenia.
Psychiatry Res. 2007 May 15;155(1):21-8. [PMID: 17395435]

McCoy JG, Tartar JL, Bebis AC, Ward CP, McKenna JT, Baxter MG, McGaughy J, McCarley RW, Strecker RE. Experimental sleep fragmentation impairs attentional set-shifting in rats.
SLEEP 2007;30(1):52-60. [PMID: 17310865]

Nakamura M, Salisbury D. F, Hirayasu Y, Bouix S, Pohl K. M, Yoshida T, Koo M. S, Shenton M. E, and McCarley R. W. Neocortical gray matter volume in first episode schizophrenia and first episode affective psychosis: a cross-sectional and longitudinal MRI study.
Biol Psychiatry. 2007 Jun 22; Epub ahead of print [PMID: 17586477]

Nakamura M, Nestor PG, McCarley RW, Levitt JJ, Hsu L, Kawashima T, et al. Altered orbitofrontal sulcogyral pattern in schizophrenia.
Brain 2007; 130: 693-707. [PMID: 17347256]

Nestor PG, Kubicki M, Spencer KM, Niznikiewicz M, McCarley RW, Shenton ME. Attentional networks and cingulum bundle in chronic schizophrenia.
Schizophr Res 2007;90:308-315 [PMID: 17150337]

Onitsuka T, McCarley RW, Kuroki N, Dickey CC, Kubicki M, Demeo SS, Frumin M, Kikinis R, Jolesz FA, Shenton ME: Occipital lobe gray matter volume in male patients with chronic schizophrenia: A quantitative MRI study.
Schizophr Res 2007 [PMID: 17350226]

Nestor PG, Onitsuka T, Gurrera RJ, Niznikiewicz MA, Frumin M, Shenton ME, McCarley RW. Dissociable contributions of MRI reductions of superior temporal and fusiform gyri to symptoms and neuropsychology in schizophrenia.
Schizophr Res. 2007 Mar;91(1-3):103-6. PMID: [17229550]

Ramesh V, Thatte H, McCarley RW and Basheer R. Adenosine and Sleep deprivation promote NF-kappaB nuclear translocation in cholinergic basal forebrain.
J Neurochem, 100 (2007):1351-1363. [PMID: 17316404]

McKenna JT, Tartar JL, Ward CP, Thakkar MM, Ling L, McGuire M, White D, McCarley RW, and Strecker RE. Sleep fragmentation elevates behavioral, electrographic and neurochemical measures of sleepiness.
Neuroscience. 2007 Jun 8;146(4):1462-73. Epub 2007 Apr 18. [PMID: 17442498]

Min-seong Koo, Chandlee C. Kickey, Hae-Jeong Park, Marek Kubicki, Na Young Ji, Sylvain Bouix, Kilian M. Pohl, james J. Levitt, Motoaki Nakamura, Martha E. Shenton, Robert W. McCarley, Smaller Neocortical Gray Matter and Larger Sulcal Cerebrospinal Fluid Volumes in Neuroleptic-Naive Women With Schizotypal Personality Disorder.
Arch Gen Psychiatry, 63(10), 1090-1100, 2006. [PMID: 17015811]

Tao R, Ma Z, McKenna JT, Thakkar MM, Winston S, Strecker RE, McCarley RW. Differential effect of orexins (hypocretins) on serotonin release in the dorsal and median raphe nuclei of freely behaving rats.
Neuroscience 2006; 141: 1101-1105. [PMID: 16820265]

Strecker R, Basheer R, McKenna JT, McCarley R. Another Chapter in the Adenosine Story.
Invited Editorial, Sleep 2006; 29: 426-428. [PMID: 16676774]

Wible C, Han D, Spencer M, Kubicki M, Niznikiewicz M, Jolesz F, McCarley RW, Nestor P: Connectivity Among Semantic Associates: An fMRI Study of Semantic Priming.
Brain and Language 2006 Jun;97(3):294-305. [PMID: 16413049]

M Koo, Dickey CC, Park H, Kubicki M, Ji NY, Bouix S, Pohl KM, Levitt JJ, Nakamura M, Shenton ME, McCarley RW (2006): Smaller Neocortical Gray Matter and Larger Sulcal CSF Volumes in Neuroleptic-Naive Females with Schizotypal Personality Disorder.
Arch Gen Psych 63; 1090-1100 [PMID: 17015811]

Nestor, PG, Valdman O, Niznikiewicz M, Spencer K, McCarley RW, Shenton ME. Word priming in schizophrenia: associational and semantic influences.
Schizophr Res 2006;82:139-142 [PMID: 16325376]

Brown RE, Winston S, Basheer R, Thakkar MM, McCarley RW. Electrophysiological characterization of neurons in the dorsolateral pontine REM sleep induction zone of the rat: intrinsic membrane properties and response to carbachol and orexins.
Neuroscience 2006; 143(3): 739-755. [PMID: 17008019]

Onitsuka T, Niznikiewicz MA, Spencer KM, Fruman M, Kuroki N, Lucia LC, Shenton ME, McCarley RW. Functional and structural deficits in brain regions subserving face perception in schizophrenia.
Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163(3):455-62. [PMID: 16513867]

Tartar JL, Ward CP, McKenna JT, Thakkar MM, Arrigoni E, McCarley RW, Brown RE, and Strecker RE. Hippocampal synaptic plasticity and spatial learning are impaired in a rat model of sleep fragmentation.
Eur. J. Neurosci. 2006; 23(10): 2739-2748. [PMID: 16817877]

Koo MS, Levitt JJ, McCarley RW, Seidman LJ, Dickey CC, Niznikiewicz MA, Voglmaier MM, Zamani P, Long KR, Kim SS, Shenton ME. Reduction of caudate nucleus volumes in neuroleptic-naive female subjects with schizotypal personality disorder.
Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Jul 1;60(1):40-8. Epub 2006 Feb 7. [PMID: 16460694]

Noriomi Kuroki, Marek Kubicki, Paul G. Nestor, Dean F. Salisbury, Hae-Jeong Park, James J. Levitt, Sophie Woolston, Melissa Frumin, Margaret Niznikiewicz, Carl-Fredrik Westin, Stephan E. Maier, Robert W. McCarley and Martha E. Shenton. Fornix Integrity and Hippocampal Volume in Male Schizophrenic Patients.
Biol Psychiatry, 60(1), 22-31, 2006. [PMID: 16406249]

Kuroki N, Shenton ME, Salisbury DF, Hirayasu Y, Onitsuka T, Ersner-Hershfield H, Yurgelun-Todd D, Kikinis R, Jolesz FA, McCarley RW. Middle and inferior temporal gyrus gray matter volume abnormalities in first-episode schizophrenia: an MRI study.
Am J Psychiatry. 2006 Dec;163(12):2103-10. [PMID: 17151161]

Arrigoni E, Chamberlin NL, Saper CB, McCarley RW. Adenosine inhibits basal forebrain cholinergic and noncholinergic neurons in vitro.
Neuroscience. 2006 Jun 30;140(2):403-13. Epub 2006 Mar 20 [PMID: 16542780]

Cordova CA, Said BO, McCarley RW, Baxter MG, Chiba AA, Strecker RE. Sleep deprivation in rats produces attentional impairments on a 5-choice serial reaction time task.
Sleep. 2006 Jan 1;29(1):69-76. [PMID: 16453983]

Basheer R, Brown R, Ramesh V, Begum S, McCarley RW. Sleep deprivation-induced protein changes in basal forebrain: implications for synaptic plasticity.
J Neurosci Res. 2005 Dec 1;82(5):650-8. [PMID: 16273548]

Ma Z, Strecker RE, McKenna JT, Thakkar MM, McCarley RW, Tao R. Effects on serotonin of (-)nicotine and dimethylphenylpiperazinium in the dorsal raphe and nucleus accumbens of freely behaving rats.
Neuroscience. 2005;135(3):949-58. Epub 2005 Sep 8. [PMID: 16154286]

Thakkar MM, Delgiacco RA, Strecker RE, McCarley RW. Adenosinergic inhibition of basal forebrain wakefulness-active neurons: a simultaneous unit recording and microdialysis study in freely behaving cats.
Neuroscience. 2003;122(4):1107-13. [PMID: 14643776]

Thakkar MM, Winston S, McCarley RW. A1 receptor and adenosinergic homeostatic regulation of sleep-wakefulness: effects of antisense to the A1 receptor in the cholinergic basal forebrain.
J Neurosci. 2003 May 15;23(10):4278-87. [PMID: 12764116]

Ito K, Yanagihara M, Imon H, Dauphin L, McCarley RW. Intracellular recordings of pontine medial gigantocellular tegmental field neurons in the naturally sleeping cat: behavioral state-related activity and soma size difference in order of recruitment.
Neuroscience. 2002;114(1):23-37. [PMID: 12207952]

Basheer R, Arrigoni E, Thatte HS, Greene RW, Ambudkar IS, McCarley RW. Adenosine induces inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-mediated mobilization of intracellular calcium stores in basal forebrain cholinergic neurons.
J Neurosci. 2002 Sep 1;22(17):7680-6. [PMID: 12196591]

Strecker RE, Nalwalk J, Dauphin LJ, Thakkar MM, Chen Y, Ramesh V, Hough LB, McCarley RW. Extracellular histamine levels in the feline preoptic/anterior hypothalamic
area during natural sleep-wakefulness and prolonged wakefulness: an in vivo microdialysis study.
Neuroscience. 2002;113(3):663-70. [PMID: 12150786]

Thakkar MM, Strecker RE, McCarley RW. Phasic but not tonic REM-selective discharge of periaqueductal gray neurons in freely behaving animals: relevance to postulates of GABAergic inhibition of monoaminergic neurons.
Brain Res. 2002 Aug 2;945(2):276-80. [PMID: 12126890]

Thakkar MM, Winston S, McCarley RW. Orexin neurons of the hypothalamus express adenosine A1 receptors.
Brain Res. 2002 Jul 19;944(1-2):190-4. [PMID: 12106679]

Basheer R, Rainnie DG, Porkka-Heiskanen T, Ramesh V, McCarley RW. Adenosine, prolonged wakefulness, and A1-activated NF-kappaB DNA binding in the basal forebrain of the rat.
Neuroscience. 2001;104(3):731-9. [PMID: 11440805]

Strecker RE, Thakkar MM, Porkka-Heiskanen T, Dauphin LJ, Bjorkum AA, McCarley RW. Behavioral state-related changes of extracellular serotonin concentration in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus: a microdialysis study in freely moving animals.
Sleep Res Online. 1999;2(2):21-7. [PMID: 11421239]

Basheer R, Halldner L, Alanko L, McCarley RW, Fredholm BB, Porkka-Heiskanen T. Opposite changes in adenosine A1 and A2A receptor mRNA in the rat following sleep deprivation.
Neuroreport. 2001 Jun 13;12(8):1577-80. [PMID: 11409719]

Thakkar MM, Ramesh V, Strecker RE, McCarley RW. Microdialysis perfusion of orexin-A in the basal forebrain increases wakefulness in freely behaving rats.
Arch Ital Biol. 2001 Apr;139(3):313-28. [PMID: 11330208]

Arrigoni E, Rainnie DG, McCarley RW, Greene RW. Adenosine-mediated presynaptic modulation of glutamatergic transmission in the laterodorsal tegmentum.
J Neurosci. 2001 Feb 1;21(3):1076-85. [PMID: 11157094]

Porkka-Heiskanen T, Strecker RE, McCarley RW. Brain site-specificity of extracellular adenosine concentration changes during sleep deprivation and spontaneous sleep: an in vivo microdialysis study.
Neuroscience. 2000;99(3):507-17. [PMID: 11029542]

Strecker RE, Morairty S, Thakkar MM, Porkka-Heiskanen T, Basheer R, Dauphin LJ, Rainnie DG, Portas CM, Greene RW, McCarley RW. Adenosinergic modulation of basal forebrain and preoptic/anterior hypothalamic neuronal activity in the control of behavioral state.
Behav Brain Res. 2000 Nov;115(2):183-204. [PMID: 11000420]

Basheer R, Porkka-Heiskanen T, Stenberg D, McCarley RW. Adenosine and behavioral state control: adenosine increases c-Fos protein and AP1 binding in basal forebrain of rats.
Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1999 Nov 10;73(1-2):1-10. [PMID: 10581392]

McCarley RW. Dreams: disguise of forbidden wishes or transparent reflections of a distinct brain state?
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1998 May 15;843:116-33. No abstract available. [PMID: 9668654]

Thakkar MM, Strecker RE, McCarley RW. Behavioral state control through differential serotonergic inhibition in the
mesopontine cholinergic nuclei: a simultaneous unit recording and microdialysis study.
J Neurosci. 1998 Jul 15;18(14):5490-7. [PMID: 9651229]

Li X, Rainnie DG, McCarley RW, Greene RW. Presynaptic nicotinic receptors facilitate monoaminergic transmission.
J Neurosci. 1998 Mar 1;18(5):1904-12. [PMID: 9465015]

Basheer R, Sherin JE, Saper CB, Morgan JI, McCarley RW, Shiromani PJ. Effects of sleep on wake-induced c-fos expression.
J Neurosci. 1997 Dec 15;17(24):9746-50. [PMID: 9391027]

Portas CM, Thakkar M, Rainnie DG, Greene RW, McCarley RW. Role of adenosine in behavioral state modulation: a microdialysis study in the freely moving cat.
Neuroscience. 1997 Jul;79(1):225-35. [PMID: 9178878]

Porkka-Heiskanen T, Strecker RE, Thakkar M, Bjorkum AA, Greene RW, McCarley RW. Adenosine: a mediator of the sleep-inducing effects of prolonged wakefulness.
Science. 1997 May 23;276(5316):1265-8. [PMID: 9157887]

Portas CM, Thakkar M, Rainnie D, McCarley RW. Microdialysis perfusion of 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) in the dorsal raphe nucleus decreases serotonin release and increases rapid eye movement sleep in the freely moving cat.
J Neurosci. 1996 Apr 15;16(8):2820-8. [PMID: 8786456]

Sherin JE, Shiromani PJ, McCarley RW, Saper CB. Activation of ventrolateral preoptic neurons during sleep.
Science. 1996 Jan 12;271(5246):216-9. [PMID: 8539624]

Shiromani PJ, Malik M, Winston S, McCarley RW. Time course of Fos-like immunoreactivity associated with cholinergically induced REM sleep.
J Neurosci. 1995 May;15(5 Pt 1):3500-8. [PMID: 7751925]

Stevens DR, McCarley RW, Greene RW. The mechanism of noradrenergic alpha 1 excitatory modulation of pontine reticular formation neurons.
J Neurosci. 1994 Nov;14(11 Pt 1):6481-7. [PMID: 7965052]

Rainnie DG, Grunze HC, McCarley RW, Greene RW. Adenosine inhibition of mesopontine cholinergic neurons: implications for EEG arousal.
Science. 1994 Feb 4;263(5147):689-92. Erratum in: Science 1994 Jul 1;265(5168):16. [PMID: 8303279]

Luebke JI, McCarley RW, Greene RW. Inhibitory action of muscarinic agonists on neurons in the rat laterodorsal tegmental nucleus in vitro.
J Neurophysiol. 1993 Nov;70(5):2128-35. [PMID: 8294974]

Stevens DR, Birnstiel S, Gerber U, McCarley RW, Greene RW. Nicotinic depolarizations of rat medial pontine reticular formation neurons studied in vitro.
Neuroscience. 1993 Nov;57(2):419-24. [PMID: 8115046]

Stevens DR, McCarley RW, Greene RW. Excitatory amino acid-mediated responses and synaptic potentials in medial pontine reticular formation neurons of the rat in vitro.
J Neurosci. 1992 Nov;12(11):4188-94. [PMID: 1279137]

Massaquoi SG, McCarley RW. Extension of the Limit Cycle Reciprocal Interaction Model of REM cycle control. An integrated sleep control model.
J Sleep Res. 1992 Jun;1(2):138-143. [PMID: 10607042]

McCarley RW, Massaquoi SG. Neurobiological structure of the revised limit cycle reciprocal interaction model of REM cycle control.
J Sleep Res. 1992 Jun;1(2):132-137. [PMID: 10607041]

Luebke JI, Greene RW, Semba K, Kamondi A, McCarley
RW, Reiner PB. Serotonin hyperpolarizes cholinergic low-threshold burst neurons in the rat laterodorsal tegmental nucleus in vitro.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Jan 15;89(2):743-7. [PMID: 1731349]

Gerber U, Stevens DR, McCarley RW, Greene RW. Muscarinic agonists activate an inwardly rectifying potassium conductance in medial pontine reticular formation neurons of the rat in vitro.
J Neurosci. 1991 Dec;11(12):3861-7. [PMID: 1744694]

Gerber U, Greene RW, McCarley RW. Repetitive firing properties of medial pontine reticular formation neurones of the rat recorded in vitro.
J Physiol. 1989 Mar;410:533-60. [PMID: 2795489]

Greene RW, Gerber U, McCarley RW. Cholinergic activation of medial pontine reticular formation neurons in vitro.
Brain Res. 1989 Jan 2;476(1):154-9. [PMID: 2914210]

Mitani A, Ito K, Mitani Y, McCarley RW. Morphological and electrophysiological identification of gigantocellular tegmental field neurons with descending projections in the cat: II. Bulb.
J Comp Neurol. 1988 Aug 15;274(3):371-86. [PMID: 2464618]

Mitani A, Ito K, Hallanger AE, Wainer BH, Kataoka K, McCarley RW. Cholinergic projections from the laterodorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei to the pontine gigantocellular tegmental field in the cat.
Brain Res. 1988 Jun 7;451(1-2):397-402. [PMID: 3251602]

Mitani A, Ito K, Mitani Y, McCarley RW. Morphological and electrophysiological identification of gigantocellular tegmental field neurons with descending projections in the cat: I. Pons.
J Comp Neurol. 1988 Feb 22;268(4):527-45. [PMID: 3356804]

Mitani A, Ito K, Mitani Y, McCarley RW. Descending projections from the gigantocellular tegmental field in the cat: cells of origin and their brainstem and spinal cord trajectories.
J Comp Neurol. 1988 Feb 22;268(4):546-66. [PMID: 2451685]

Lydic R, McCarley RW, Hobson JA. Serotonin neurons and sleep. I. Long term recordings of dorsal raphe discharge frequency and PGO waves.
Arch Ital Biol. 1987 Oct;125(4):317-43. [PMID: 3439827]

Baghdoyan HA, Rodrigo-Angulo ML, McCarley RW, Hobson JA. A neuroanatomical gradient in the pontine tegmentum for the cholinoceptive induction of desynchronized sleep signs.
Brain Res. 1987 Jun 30;414(2):245-61. [PMID: 3620930]

McCarley RW, Massaquoi SG. Further discussion of a model of the REM sleep oscillator.
Am J Physiol. 1986 Dec;251(6 Pt 2):R1033-6. [PMID: 3789190]

McCarley RW, Massaquoi SG. A limit cycle mathematical model of the REM sleep oscillator system.
Am J Physiol. 1986 Dec;251(6 Pt 2):R1011-29. [PMID: 3789188]

Greene RW, Haas HL, McCarley RW. A low threshold calcium spike mediates firing pattern alterations in pontine reticular neurons.
Science. 1986 Nov 7;234(4777):738-40. [PMID: 3775364]

Baghdoyan HA, Monaco AP, Rodrigo-Angulo ML, Assens F, McCarley RW, Hobson JA. Microinjection of neostigmine into the pontine reticular formation of cats enhances desynchronized sleep signs.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1984 Oct;231(1):173-80. [PMID: 6491973]

Lydic R, McCarley RW, Hobson JA. Forced activity alters sleep cycle periodicity and dorsal raphe discharge rhythm.
Am J Physiol. 1984 Jul;247(1 Pt 2):R135-45. [PMID: 6331207]

McCarley RW, Benoit O, Barrionuevo G. Lateral geniculate nucleus unitary discharge in sleep and waking: state- and rate-specific aspects.
J Neurophysiol. 1983 Oct;50(4):798-818. PMID: [6631464]

Nelson JP, McCarley RW, Hobson JA. REM sleep burst neurons, PGO waves, and eye movement information.
J Neurophysiol. 1983 Oct;50(4):784-97. [PMID: 6631463]

McCarley RW. REM sleep and depression: common neurobiological control mechanisms.
Am J Psychiatry. 1982 May;139(5):565-70. [PMID: 6122380]

McCarley RW, Hoffman E. REM sleep dreams and the activation-synthesis hypothesis.
Am J Psychiatry. 1981 Jul;138(7):904-12. [PMID: 7258349]

McCarley RW, Nelson JP, Hobson JA. Ponto-geniculo-occipital (PGO) burst neurons: correlative evidence for neuronal generators of PGO waves.
Science. 1978 Jul 21;201(4352):269-72. [PMID: 663656]

Wyzinski PW, McCarley RW, Hobson JA. Discharge properties of pontine reticulospinal neurons during sleep-waking cycle.
J Neurophysiol. 1978 May;41(3):821-34. [PMID: 660232]

Hobson JA, McCarley RW. The brain as a dream state generator: an activation-synthesis hypothesis of the dream process.
Am J Psychiatry. 1977 Dec;134(12):1335-48. [PMID: 21570]

McCarley RW, Hobson JA. The neurobiological origins of psychoanalytic dream theory.
Am J Psychiatry. 1977 Nov;134(11):1211-21. [PMID: 333951]

McCarley RW, Hobson JA. Discharge patterns of cat pontine brain stem neurons during desynchronized sleep.
J Neurophysiol. 1975 Jul;38(4):751-66. [PMID: 1159463]

McCarley RW, Hobson JA. Neuronal excitability modulation over the sleep cycle: a structural and mathematical model.
Science. 1975 Jun 4;189(4196):58-60. [PMID: 1135627]

Hobson JA, McCarley RW, Wyzinski PW. Sleep cycle oscillation: reciprocal discharge by two brainstem neuronal groups.
Science. 1975 Jun 4;189(4196):55-8. [PMID: 1094539]

Hobson JA, McCarley RW, Freedman R, Pivik RT. Time course of discharge rate changes by cat pontine brain stem neurons during sleep cycle.
J Neurophysiol. 1974 Nov;37(6):1297-309. No abstract available. [PMID: 4436702]

McCarley RW, Hobson JA. Single neuron activity in cat gigantocellular tegmental field: selectivity of discharge in desynchronized sleep.
Science. 1971 Dec 17;174(15):1250-2. No abstract available. [PMID: 5133450]

McCarley RW, Hobson JA. Cortical unit activity in desynchronized sleep.
Science. 1970 Feb 6;167(919):901-3. No abstract available. [PMID: 4312290]

Reviews

Brown RE, Basheer R, McKenna JT, Strecker RE, McCarley RW. Control of sleep and wakefulness.
Physiol Rev. 2012 Jul;92(3):1087-187. Review. [PMID: 22811426]

McCarley RW, Nakamura M, Shenton ME, Salisbury DF. Combining ERP and structural MRI information in first episode schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Clin EEG Neurosci. 2008 Apr;39(2):57-60. Review. [PMID: 18450168]

Kubicki M, McCarley R, Westin CF, Park HJ, Maier S, Kikinis R, Jolesz FA, Shenton ME. A review of diffusion tensor imaging studies in schizophrenia.
J Psychiatr Res. 2007 Jan-Feb;41(1-2):15-30. Review. [PMID: 16023676]

McCarley RW. Mechanisms and models of REM sleep control.
Arch Ital Biol. 2004 Jul;142(4):429-67. Review. [PMID: 15493547]

Sinton CM, McCarley RW. Neurophysiological mechanisms of sleep and wakefulness: a question of balance.
Semin Neurol. 2004 Sep;24(3):211-23. Review. [PMID: 15449215]

Basheer R, Strecker RE, Thakkar MM, McCarley RW. Adenosine and sleep-wake regulation.
Prog Neurobiol. 2004 Aug;73(6):379-96. Review. [PMID: 15313333]

Basheer R, Porkka-Heiskanen T, Strecker RE, Thakkar MM, McCarley RW. Adenosine as a biological signal mediating sleepiness following prolonged wakefulness.
Biol Signals Recept. 2000 Nov-Dec;9(6):319-27. Review. [PMID: 11025338]

Books and Chapters

Mallick BN, Pandi-Perumal SR, McCarley RW, Morrison AR, Eds., Rapid Eye Movement Sleep:
Regulation and Function. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York, 2011.

Winterer G, McCarley RW. Electrophysiology of schizophrenia.
In: Weinberger DR and Harrison PJ. ed. Schizophrenia, Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 2011: 311-333.

McCarley, RW, Neurobiology of REM sleep.
In: Montagna P, Chokroverty S, ed. Handbook of Clinical Neurology Vol 98 (3rd series), Sleep Disorder Part 1. London: Elsevier B.V., 2011; 151-171.

McKenna JT, Brown RE, McCarley RW. Neuroanatomy and neurobiology of sleep and wakefulness.
In: Winkelman JW and Plante DT (Eds.). Foundations of Psychiatric Sleep Medicine, Cambridge University Press 2010: 13-35.

Basheer R, McKenna JT, McCarley RW. Pharmacology of Sleep: Adenosine.
In: Squire LR, ed, Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. Oxford: Academic Press 2009. Volume 7, pp.601-610.

McCarley RW, Neurobiology of Rapid Eye Movement and Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep.
In: Chokroverty, S., ed. Sleep Disorders Medicine, 3rd Edition. Philidelphia: Saunders Elsevier 2009, pp 22-58.

Brown RE, McCarley RW. Neuroanatomical and neurochemical basis of wakefulness and REM sleep systems.
In: Monti JM, Pandi-Perumal SR, Sinton CM, (Eds.). The Neurobiology of Sleep and Wakefulness. Cambridge University Press. 2008; pp 23-58.

Thakkar MM, McCarley RW. Histamine in the control of sleep-wakefulness.
In: Monti JM, Pandi-Perumal SR, Sinton CM, (Eds.). The Neurobiology of Sleep and Wakefulness. Cambridge University Press. 2008; pp 144-178.

McCarley, RW. Sleep, dreams and states of consciousness.
In: Conn, PM, ed. Neuroscience in Medicine, 3rd Edition. New York: Humana/Springer 2008. pp723-746.

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