Faculty Profile

Steven W. Lockley, PhD

Steven W. Lockley, PhD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School
Neuroscientist, Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders, Departments of Medicine and Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital

Other Affiliation(s)

Adjunct Professor, Monash Institute of Cognitive and Clinical Neurosciences, School of Psychological Sciences, Monash University, Australia

Program Leader, CRC for Alertness, Safety and Productivity, Australia

Affiliated Faculty, Center for Health and the Global Environment, Harvard School of Public Health

Honorary Associate Professor in Sleep Medicine, Clinical Sciences Research Institute, Warwick Medical School, UK

Research Associate in Sleep and Chronobiology, Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, Australia

See publications


Address

221 Longwood Avenue, Suite 438
Boston, MA 02115
USA

Inter-office Mail Address

Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders,
Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Phone 617-732-4977
Phone 617-732-4013
Fax 801-729-9929

Email slockley@hms.harvard.edu

Society Memberships

Sleep Research Society
Society for Research on Biological Rhythms
European Pineal and Biological Rhythms Society
European Sleep Research Society
International Dark-Sky Association

Research Unit(s)

Circadian Physiology Program
Division of Sleep Medicine
Harvard Work Hours Health and Safety Group
Sleep and Chronobiology Group, Monash University
Center for Health and the Global Environment, Harvard School of Public Health

Research Interests

The Circadian Physiology Program focuses on basic and applied aspects of human circadian biology. Our translational approach includes use of a range of techniques including epidemiology, field-based physiological studies and inpatient intensive physiological monitoring. We have a particular interest in human circadian photoreception and the effects of light on the circadian pacemaker and other non-image forming responses. Our studies include investigations of the effects of timing, duration, intensity and wavelength of light exposure on circadian resetting, melatonin suppression and the acute alerting effects of light. We also study visually impaired individuals under field and laboratory conditions to examine the effects of the severity and type of blindness on circadian photoreception, the periodicity of the circadian pacemaker and development of circadian rhythm sleep disorders. These basic studies have led to the development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat non-24-hour sleep wake disorder, Advanced- and Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome with appropriately-timed melatonin administration in blind patients. We have also recently begun to examine the role of visual impairment on endocrinology and breast cancer risk in blind women.

With the Harvard Work Hours Health and Safety Group, we assess the impact of extended work hours on health and safety of workers and the public. Our studies include the development of interventions that reduce extended duration work hours, fatigue and medical errors in hospital residents, and the implementation of large-scale occupational fatigue management and sleep disorders screening programs in several police forces nationwide.

Trainees

Undergraduate students

University of Surrey, UK
Laura J. Butler, 1997 
Sophie A. Rocks, 1998
Vanessa Sands, 1998
Charlotte E. Killer, 1999
Ourania Kosti, 1999
Amina Baksh, 1999
Marina Tsaoussouglou, 2004
Matthew Hurst, 2004
Mia Jacobsen, 2004

Imperial College, UK
Theresa Momberger, 1999
Victoria L. Revell, 2000

Harvard University
Clark J. Lee, 2003
Naila Ramji, 2008
William Clerx, 2014

University of Massachusetts Boston
Leslie M. Torres Ulloa, 2015

Monash University, Australia
Emma S. Giliberto, 2017

Medical School elective students
Warwick Medical School, UK
Sarah Padley, 2006
Emily Robbins, 2012

Monash University Medical Center, Australia
Maneesha Manglick, 2010

Postgraduate students

University of Surrey, UK
Anna Zachirou, Masters student, 2000

Brigham and Women’s Hospital
Christopher Pechacek,  Masters student (in collaboration with MIT), 2006-2008
Joseph T. Hull, Graduate student (in collaboration with University of Surrey), 2002-2009
Erin E. Flynn-Evans, Graduate student, (in collaboration with University of Surrey), 2004-2010
Ahuva Y. Segal, Graduate student (in collaboration with Monash University), 2007-date
Catherine J. Hanley, Masters student (in collaboration with University College Dublin), 2007-2012
Julia Shekleton, Graduate student (in collaboration with Monash University), 2009-2011
Suzanne Ftouni, Graduate student (in collaboration with Monash University), 2009-2014
Ian Dunican, Graduate student (in collaboration with Monash University), 2011-2013
María L. Ámundadóttir, Graduate student (in collaboration with École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne) 2012-2016
Simonne Cohen, Graduate student (in collaboration with Monash University), 2013-date
Leilah K. Grant, Graduate student, Monash University, 2015-date
Julia E. Stone, Graduate student, Monash University, 2015-date
Saranea Ganesan Graduate student, Monash University, 2015-date
Laura J. Connolly, Graduate student, Monash University, 2015-date
Lauren J. Bulfin, Graduate student, Monash University, 2017-date

Fellows
Adriana Lira-Oliver, D.Des., Post-doctoral fellow, 2007
Joshua J. Gooley, Ph.D., Post-doctoral fellow, 2005-2008
Eliza Van Reen, Ph.D., Post-doctoral fellow, 2007-2009
Kate E. Crowley, Ph.D., Post-doctoral fellow, 2010-2011
Brian K. Abaluck, M.D., Clinical fellow, 2010-2011
Melanie Rüger, Ph.D., Post-doctoral fellow, 2007-2012
Joseph T. Hull, Ph.D., Post-doctoral fellow, 2009-2014
Shadab A. Rahman, Ph.D., Post-doctoral fellow, 2010-2015
Erin E. Flynn-Evans, Ph.D., Post-doctoral fellow, 2010-2013
Melissa A. St. Hilaire, Ph.D., Post-doctoral fellow, 2012-2015
Tracey A. Sletten, Ph.D., Post-doctoral fellow, 2013
Amy Bender, PhD / Post-doctoral Fellow,
Sleep Research Society Mentor/Mentee Support Award 2017

Research Funding

Current funding:

NHLBI: Co-PIs: C.A. Czeisler PhD, MD and C.P. Landrigan MD. Multi-center trial of work-hour limits for PGY 2&3 resident work hours on patient safety.

NIOSH: PI: L.K. Barger, PhD. Impact of eliminating extended duration work shifts on intern health and safety.

NHMRC (Australia): PI: S.W. Cain, PhD. Circadian mechanisms for sex differences in shift work tolerance

NASA PI: GC Brainard PhD; Co-PI: SW Lockley PhD. Testing solid state lighting countermeasures to improve circadian adaptation, sleep, and performance during high fidelity analog and flight studies for the International Space Station.

NASA: Co-PIs: S.W. Lockley, PhD and C.A. Czeisler PhD, MD. Development and testing of biomarkers to determine individual astronauts’ vulnerabilities to behavioral health disruptions

NASA: PI: S.W. Lockley. Lighting Protocols for Exploration – HERA Campaign.

NHLBI/NIH: (PI: B Kristal PhD)
Circadian lipidomics in constant routine, forced desynchrony, and non-lab setting

Completed funding:
FORD/MIT: PI: C.M. Oman PhD.  Investigation of blue-enriched light as a countermeasure for automobile driver sleepiness and fatigue.

NHMRC (Australia): PI: S.W. Cain, PhD. Hyper-sensitivity of the circadian system to light in Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder

STTR: PI: A Dowling, PhD
Technologies to target circadian rhythm disruption in PTSD

NIH/NINDS: PI: J.F. Duffy. Efficacy of melatonin in a phase advance model of transient insomnia.

NSBRI: PI:  S.W. Lockley, PhD. The ISS Dynamic Lighting Schedule: An in-flight lighting countermeasure to facilitate circadian adaptation, improve sleep and enhance alertness and performance on the International Space Station
NIH/NINDS: PI: C.A. Czeisler, PhD, MD. Desensitization of circadian responses to light

NHMRC (Australia). PI: S.M.W. Rajaratnam, PhD. ‘Randomised controlled trial of a light intervention to enhance alertness and performance in night shiftworkers’.

NSBRI: PI: S.A. Shea, PhD. ‘Identification of cardiometabolic vulnerabilities caused by effects of synergistic stressors that are commonly encountered during space missions’

US Department of Homeland Security: PI: C.A. Czeisler, PhD, MD. Clinical trial of an intervention to reduce fatigue and improve safety and health in Firefighters

NHMRC Centre for Integrated Research and Understanding of Sleep (CIRUS) (Australia): Co-PIs: T. L. Sletten PhD and S.M.W. Rajaratnam, PhD. ‘The role of sleep and circadian phase on crew safety, performance and psychological health during long-term analog space missions’

DARPA: PI: C.A. Czeisler, PhD, MD. Development of an algorithm for predicting which individuals are highly vulnerable versus highly resilient to the effects of sleep loss on performance

NIH: Co-PIs: C.A. Czeisler, PhD, MD and E.B. Klerman, MD, PhD. Multi-scale modeling of sleep behaviors in social networks.

NFL Charities: PI: C.A. Czeisler PhD, MD. Screening for obstructive sleep apnea in National Football League Players.

NSBRI: PI: C. Oman, PhD. Validation of assessment tests and countermeasures for detecting and mitigating changes in cognitive function during robotics operations.

NSBRI/NASA PI: G.C. Brainard, PhD. Optimizing light spectrum for long duration space flight

NIH/NIMH PI: S.W. Lockley, PhD. Treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders with bright light

NIH/NIEHS: PI:  S.W. Lockley, PhD. Effects of the circadian clock and light on the production of estrogens.

NASA: PI: G.C. Brainard, PhD. Feasibility pilot study on acute biological and behavioral responses to the solid state lighting module for the International Space Station.

US Department of Homeland Security: PI: C.A. Czeisler, PhD, MD. National Firefighter Sleep Disorders Management Program: Translation to Practice.

NMRC (Singapore) PI: J.J. Gooley, PhD. Improving the efficacy of light therapy: A comparative study to determine whether exposure to intermittent light enhances circadian, neuroendocrine, and alerting responses relative to exposure to continuous light.

NASA: Co-PIs: C.A. Czeisler, PhD; L.K. Barger, PhD. A comprehensive fatigue management program and an evaluation of a photic countermeasure for mission controllers.

Harvard CTSC Pilot Grant. PI: L.A. Mucci, ScD. Melatonin and prostate cancer: A biomarker study among men in the Reykjavik cohort.

NASA:  PI:  S.W. Lockley, PhD. The role of sleep and circadian phase on crew safety, performance and psychological health during long-term analog space missions.

NIH/NHLBI: PI: E.B. Klerman, MD, PhD. Human circadian sensitivity of very short light pulses.

NSBRI: PI:  S.W. Lockley, PhD. Characteristics of light exposure necessary for development of optimal countermeasures to facilitate circadian adaptation and Enhance alertness and cognitive performance in space.

US Department of Homeland Security: PI: C.A. Czeisler, PhD, MD. A Comprehensive Fire-fighter Fatigue Management Program ‘Operation Healthy Sleep’

NIH/AHRQ: PI: C.P. Landrigan, MD, Developing a risk index of healthcare provider alertness to improve safety.

FRSQ: PI: J. Carrier, PhD. ‘Réponses cérébrales à la lumière chez des personnes non-voyantes’

Monash University Strategic Grant. PI: S.W. Rajaratnam, PhD,. ‘An investigation of drowsiness while driving in hosp ital night shift workers and sleep disorder patients:
The Monash Drowsy Driving (MONRI) Study’

NHMRC (Australia). PI: S.M.W. Rajaratnam, PhD. Acute alerting effects of daytime light exposure to specific wavelengths of light.

NASA: PI: L.K. Barger, PhD. Phoenix Scout Lander: Countermeasures test-bed for spaceflight ground controllers.

NASA: PI: G.C. Brainard, PhD. Blue light for enhancing alertness in space missions.

NIH/CDC: -PI: C.A. Czeisler, PhD, MD. Evaluation of the potential for translation to practice of a sleep disorders management program for police.

NIH/NCCAM PI: PI: S.W. Lockley, PhD. Mechanism underlying the effects of blue light in humans

NIH/NINDS PI: PI: S.W. Lockley, PhD. Photic and nonphotic input to the human circadian system

NIH/AHRQ PI: C.P. Landrigan, MD. Implementing reduced work hours for all ICU staff to improve patient safety

NIH/NIOSH PI: E.S. Schernhammer, MD, PhD. Effects of light at night on the circadian system in nurses

DARPA PI: H. Wei, PhD, ‘A spectrally dynamic berth light for active circadian cycle management’

NIH/NIJ PI: C.A. Czeisler, PhD, MD. Testing the effectiveness of a comprehensive police fatigue management program

AFOSR: PI: D. Adams. Short wavelength countermeasure for circadian desynchrony.

NIH/CDC PI: C.A. Czeisler, PhD, MD. Sleep disorders management, health and safety in police

Dept of Defense PI: S.W. Lockley, PhD, Reproductive and hormonal risk factors for breast cancer in blind women.

ResMed Foundation. PI: S.W. Lockley, PhD, Assessment of AHI by ApneaLink under laboratory and home-based conditions in police officers with and without obstructive sleep apnea.

NHS (UK). PI: F.C. Cappuccio, MD. Effects on patient safety and physician well-being of implementing an EWTD-compliant rota reducing junior doctors’ weekly work hours from 56 to 48.

ResMed Foundation. PI: S.W. Lockley, PhD, Testing the effectiveness of a comprehensive police fatigue management program “Operation Healthy Sleep”.

NIH/NIOSH: PI: C.A. Czeisler, PhD, MD. Effects of extended work hours on intern health and safety.

NIH/NINDS: PI: C.A. Czeisler, PhD, MD. After effects of entrainment on human circadian period.

NIH/AHRQ: PI: C.A. Czeisler, PhD, MD. Effects of extended work hours on ICU patient safety.

NIH/NINDS: PI: G.C. Brainard, PhD. ‘Ocular control of melatonin regulation: Action Spectrum’.

Wellcome Trust: PI: PI: S.W. Lockley, PhD. Prize Research Travelling Fellowship. Effects of caffeine administration on circadian entrainment, sleep, alertness and performance in free-running blind people.

Wellcome Trust: PI: PI: S.W. Lockley, PhD. Prize Research Travelling Fellowship. Determination of the endogenous tau of the human circadian system in the absence of light and the influence if non-photic time cues.

Teaching

Faculty, Harvard University MCB186 Circadian Biology
Faculty, Harvard Graduate School of Design Day-Lighting Buildings Executive Education
Faculty, Harvard School of Public Health Occupational and Environmental Medicine (
(EH232, ENVR E-119c, EH 252) )
Faculty, MIT Daylighting (4.430)
Faculty, Monash University (PSY3320)

In the News

Brainwaves: Light, 2015 BBC Radio Scotland
Urban light pollution: why we're all living with permanent 'mini jetlag', 2014 The Guardian
Chronobiology: Stepping out of Time, 2013 Nature
Should Medical Residents Be Required to Work Shorter Shifts? 2013 The Wall Street Journal
Fake mission to Mars leaves astronauts spaced out, 2013 The Guardian
Blues Cues: Researchers cast a little light on the subject of sleep, 2012 Harvard Medicine Magazine
How to beat jet lag, 2012 USA Today
A New Glow in the Dark: Sleeping With Blue Light On, 2012 The Wall Street Journal
A Battle Plan for Jet Lag, 2012 New York Times
Blue light has a dark side, 2012 Harvard Health Publications
Where Have All The Stars Gone? 2012 PBS NewsHour
Sleep Research in the Blind May Help Us All, 2012 The Huffington Post
Light from electronic screens at night linked to sleep loss, 2012 Chicago Tribune
BWH Researcher Sheds Light on a Dark Topic, 2011 BWH Bulletin
Why you should dim the lights at night, 2011 Boston Globe Online
Better care if doctors rest, 2009 BBC News report
When the blues keep you awake, 2006 article in the Harvard Gazette
Overworked interns prone to medical errors, 2004 article in the Harvard Gazette
Chronotypes, 2013 BBC Radio Broadcast
Sleepy teenagers experiencing body clock changes could be helped by delayed school hours, 2014 article from ABC News Net Australia

Honors
Wellcome Trust International Prize Research Travelling Fellowship, 2000
Invited Speaker, Gordon Conference on Pineal Cell Biology, 2000
Invited Speaker, Gordon Conference on Chronobiology, 2001
Young Investigator Award, Sleep Research Society, 2004
Symposium Chair, Gordon Conference on Pineal Cell Biology, 2004
International Dark-Sky Association Executive Director Special Award, 2005
Co-Chair, Fatigue, Sleep and Biological Clocks International Conference, 2005
National Sleep Foundation Healthy Sleep Community Award, 2006
Invited Speaker, Gordon Conference on Pineal Cell Biology, 2008
Harvard Club of Australia Foundation Australia-Harvard Fellowship, 2009
Taylor Technical Talent Award, Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, 2009
Distinguished Service Award, Sleep Research Society, 2010
NASA Group Achievement Award (as part of the Chilean Miners NASA Rescue Support Team), 2011
NASA Johnston Space Center Center Director's Innovation Team Award (as part of the ISS Flexible Lighting Team), 2014
Excellence in Research Award, Human Centric Lighting Society, 2015

Selected Publications

Rahman SA, St. Hilaire MA, Gronfier C, Chang AM, Santhi N, Czeisler CA, Klerman EB, Lockley SW. Functional decoupling of melatonin suppression and circadian phase resetting in humans. Journal of Physiology 2018; in press.

Postnova S, Lockley SW, Robinson PA. Prediction of cognitive performance and subjective sleepiness using a model of arousal dynamics. Journal of Biological Rhythms 2018; in press.

Hull JT, Czeisler CA, Lockley SW. Suppression of melatonin secretion in totally visually blind people by ocular exposure to white light: Clinical characteristics. Ophthalmology 2018; in press [PMID: 29625838]

Stone JE, Sletten TL, Magee M, Ganesan S, Mulhall MD, Collins A, Howard M, Lockley SW, Rajaratnam SMW. Temporal dynamics of circadian phase shifting response to consecutive night shifts in healthcare workers: Role of light-dark exposure. Journal of Physiology 2018; in press [ PMID: 29589871]

Abeysuriya RG, Lockley SW, Robinson PA, Postnova S. A unified model of melatonin, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, and sleep dynamics. Journal of Pineal Research 2018; in press [PMID: 29437238]

St. Hilaire MA, Rahman SA, Gooley JJ, Witt-Enderby P, Lockley SW. Relationship between melatonin and bone resorption rhythms in premenopausal women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism 2018; in press [PMID:   29318392]

Anderson C, Ftouni S, Ronda JM, Rajaratnam SMW, Czeisler CA, Lockley SW. Self-reported drowsiness and safety outcomes while driving after an extended duration work shift in trainee physicians. Sleep 2018; in press. [PMID: 29281091]

Cohen S*, Fulcher BD*, Rajaratnam SMW, Conduit R, Sullivan JP, St Hilaire MA, Philips AJK, Loddenkemper T, Kothare SV, McConnell K, Braga-Kenyon P, Ahearn W, Schlesinger A, Potter J, Bird F, Cornish KM, Lockley SW. Sleep patterns predictive of daytime challenging behavior in individuals with low-functioning autism. Autism Research 2018; 11(2):391-403. [PMID: 29197172]

Cohen S, Fulcher BD, Rajaratnam SMW, Conduit R, Sullivan JP, St Hilaire MA, Phillips AJ, Loddenkemper T, Kothare SV, McConnell K, Ahearn W, Braga-Kenyon P, Schlesinger A, Potter J, Bird F, Cornish KM, Lockley SW. Behaviorally-determined sleep phenotypes are robustly associated with adaptive functioning in individuals with low-functioning autism. Scientific Reports 2017; 7(1):142287. [PMID: 29079761 PMCID: PMC5660229]

Kelley P, Lockley SW, Kelley J, Evans MDR. Is 8:30 a.m. still too early to start school? A 10:00 a.m. school start time improves health and performance of students aged 13-16. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 2017; 11:588. [PMID: 29276481 PMCID: PMC5727052]

Flynn-Evans EE, Shekleton JA, Miller B, Epstein LJ, Kirsch D, Brogna LA, Burke LM, Bremer E, Murray JM, Gehrman P, Rajaratnam SMW, Lockley SW. Circadian phase and phase angle disorders in primary insomnia. Sleep 2017; 40(12). [PMID: 29029340]

Sletten TL, Ftouni S, Nicholas CL, Magee M, Grunstein RR, Ferguson S, Kennaway DJ, O’Brien D, Lockley SW, Rajaratnam SMW. Randomised controlled trial of the efficacy of a blue-enriched light intervention to improve alertness and performance in night shift workers. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2017; 74(11):792-801. [PMID: 28630378]

Phillips AJK*, Clerx WM*, O’Brien CS, Sano A, Barger LK, Picard RW, Lockley SW, Klerman EB, Czeisler CA. Irregular sleep/wake patterns are associated with poorer academic performance and delayed circadian and sleep/wake timing. Scientific Reports 2017; 7(1):3216. [PMID: 28607474 PMCID: PMC5468315]

Rahman SA, St. Hilaire MA, Lockley SW. The effects of spectral tuning of evening ambient light on melatonin suppression, alertness and sleep. Physiology and Behavior 2017; 177: 221-229. [PMID: 28472667]

Rahman SA, St. Hilaire MA, Chang AM, Santhi N, Duffy JF, Kronaeur RE, Czeisler CA, Lockley SW, Klerman EB. Circadian phase resetting by a single short-duration light exposure. JCI Insight 2017; 2(7):e89494. [PMID: 28405608 PMCID: PMC5374060]

St. Hilaire MA*, Rüger M*, Fratelli F, Hull JT, Phillips AJK, Lockley SW. Modeling neurocognitive decline and recovery during repeated cycles of extended sleep and chronic sleep deficiency. Sleep 2017; 40(1). [PMID: 28364449]

Murray JM, Sletten TL, Magee M, Gordon C, Lovato N, Bartlett DJ, Kennaway DJ, Lack LC, Grunstein RR, Lockley SW, Rajaratnam SMW. Delayed Sleep on Melatonin (DelSoM) Study Group. Prevalence of circadian misalignment and its association with depressive symptoms in delayed sleep phase disorder. Sleep 2017; 40(1). [PMID: 28364473]

Sullivan JP, O’Brien CS, Barger LK, Rajaratnam SMW, Czeisler CA, Lockley SW; The Harvard Work Hours, Health and Safety Group. Randomized, prospective study of the impact of a workplace-based sleep health program on firefighter injury and disability. Sleep 2017; 40(1). [PMID: 28364446]

Bullock B, Murray G, Anderson JL, Cooper-O’Neil T, Gooley JJ, Cain SW, Lockley SW. Constraint is associated with earlier circadian phase and morningness: Confirmation of relationships between personality and circadian phase using a constant routine protocol. Personality and Individual Differences 2017; 104:69–74.

Segal AY, Sletten TL, Flynn-Evans EE, Lockley SW, Rajaratnam SMW. Daytime exposure to short- and medium-wavelength light did not improve alertness and neurobehavioral performance. Journal of Biological Rhythms 2016; in press. 31(5):470-82. [PMID: 27474192]

Sigurðardóttir LG, Markt SC, Sigurdsson S, Aspelund T, Fall K, Schernhammer E, Rider JR, Launer L, Harris T, Stampfer MJ, Guðnason V, Czeisler CA, Lockley SW, Valdimarsdóttir UA, Mucci LA. Pineal gland volume assessed by MRI and its correlation with 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels among older men. Journal of Biological Rhythms 2016; 31(5):461-9.
[PMID: 27449477]

Postnova S, Lockley SW, Robinson PA. Sleep propensity under forced desynchrony in a model of arousal state dynamics. Journal of Biological Rhythms 2016; 31(5):498-508.
[PMID: 27432116]

Amundadottir ML, Lockley SW, Andersen M. Unified framework to evaluate non-visual spectral effectiveness of light for human health. Lighting Research & Technology 2016;
doi: 10.1177/1477153516655844

Newman DP, Lockley SW, Loughnane GM, Martins ACP, Abe R, Zoratti MTR, Kelly SP, O’Neill MH, Rajaratnam SMW, O‘Connell RG, Bellgrove MA. Ocular exposure to blue-enriched light has an asymmetric influence on neural activity and spatial attention. Scientific Reports 2016; 6:27754. [PMID: 27291291 PMCID: PMC4904199]

Magee M, Sletten TL, Ferguson SA, Grunstein RR, Anderson C, Kennaway DJ, Lockley SW, Rajaratnam SM. Associations between number of consecutive night shifts and impairment of neurobehavioural performance during a subsequent simulated night shift Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 2016; 42(3):217-27. [PMID: 27064758]

Chang AM, Bjonnes A, Aeschbach D, Buxton OM, Gooley JJ, Anderson C, Van Reen E, Cain SW, Czeisler CA, Duffy JF, Lockley SW, Shea SA, Scheer FA, Saxena R. Circadian gene variants influence sleep and the sleep electroencephalogram in humans. Chronobiology International 2016; 33(5):561-73. [PMID: 27089043]

Lane JM, Chang AM, Bjonnes AC, Aeschbach D, Anderson C, Cade BE, Cain SW, Czeisler CA, Gharib SA, Gooley JJ, Gottlieb DJ, Grant SF, Klerman EB, Lauderdale DS, Lockley SW, Munch M, Patel S, Punjabi NM, Rajaratnam SW, Rueger M, St. Hilaire MA, Santhi N, Scheuermaier K, Van Reen E, Zee PC, Shea SA, Duffy JF, Buxton OM, Redline S, Scheer FA*, Saxena R*. Impact of common diabetes risk variant in MTNR1B on sleep, circadian and melatonin physiology. Diabetes 2016; 65(6):1741-51. [PMID:  26868293]

Barger LK, O’Brien CS, Rajaratnam SM, Qadri S, Sullivan JP, Wang W, Czeisler CA, Lockley SW. Implementing a sleep health education and sleep disorders screening program in fire departments: A comparison of methodology. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2016; 58(6):601-9. [PMID: 27035103. PMCID: PMC4883642]

Flynn-Evans EE, Lockley SW. A pre-screening questionnaire to predict non-24 hour sleep wake rhythm disorder (N24HSWD) among the blind. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine 2016; 12(5):703-710. [PMID: 26951421]

Lockley SW, Dressman MA, Licamele L, Xiao C, Fisher DM, Flynn-Evans EE, Hull JT, Torres R, Lavedan C, Polymeropoulos MH. Two multicentre randomised trials of tasimelteon for treatment of Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder in the blind. The Lancet 2015; 386(10005): 1754-1764. [PMID: 26466871]

Sletten TL, Segal AY, Flynn-Evans EE, Lockley SW, Rajaratnam SM. Inter-individual differences in neurobehavioural impairment following sleep restriction are associated with circadian rhythm phase. PLoS One 2015; 10(6):e0128273. [PMID: 26043207]

St. Hilaire MA, Lockley SW. Caffeine does not entrain the circadian clock but improves daytime alertness in blind patients with non-24-hour rhythms. [Brief Communication]. Sleep Medicine 2015; 16(6):800-4. [PMID: 25891543]

Ftouni S, Sletten TL, Nicholas CL, Kennaway DJ, Lockley SW, Rajaratnam SMW. Ocular measures of sleepiness are increased in night shift workers undergoing a simulated night shift near the peak time of the 6-sulfatoxymelatonin rhythm.  Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine 2015; in press. [PMID: 26094925]

Barger LK, Rajaratnam SM, Wang W, O'Brien CS, Sullivan JP, Qadri S, Lockley SW, Czeisler CA. Common sleep disorders increase risk of motor vehicle crashes and adverse health outcomes in firefighters. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine 2015; 11(3):233-240. [PMID: 25580602]

Rahman SA, Castanon-Cervantes O, Scheer FAJL, Shea SA, Czeisler CA, Davidson AJ, Lockley SW. Endogenous circadian regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the presence of bacterial lipopolysaccharide in humans. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 2015; in press. [PMID: 25452149]

Markt SC, Valdimarsdóttir UA, Shui IM, Sigurðardóttir LG, Rider JR, Tamimi RM, Batista JL, Haneuse S, Flynn-Evans EE, Lockley SW, Czeisler CA, Stampfer MJ, Launer L, Harris T, Smith AV, Guðnason V, Lindstrom S, Kraft P, Mucci LA. Circadian clock genes and risk of fatal prostate cancer. Cancer Causes Control 2015; 26(1):25-33. [PMID: 25388799 PMCID: PMC4282953]

Sigurðardóttir LG*, Markt SC*, Rider JR, Haneuse S, Fall K, Schernhammer ES, Tamimi RM,  Flynn-Evans EE, Batista JL, Launer L, Harris T, Aspelund T, Stampfer MJ, Guðnason V, Czeisler CA, Lockley SW, Valdimarsdóttir UA†, Mucci LA†. Urinary melatonin levels, sleep disruption, and risk of prostate cancer in elderly men. European Urology 2015; 67(2): 191-4. [PMID: 25107635]

Flynn-Evans EE, Tabandeh H, Skene DJ, Lockley SW. Circadian rhythm disorders and melatonin production in 127 blind women with and without light perception.
Journal of Biological Rhythms 2014; 29(3): 215-24. [PMID: 24916394]

Rahman SA, Flynn-Evans EE, Aeschbach D, Brainard GC, Czeisler CA, Lockley SW.
Diurnal spectral sensitivity of the acute alerting effects of light.
Sleep 2014; 37(2): 271-281. [PMID: 24501435]

Shekleton JA, Flynn-Evans EE, Miller B, Epstein LJ, Kirsch D, Brogna LA, Burke LM, Bremer E, Murray JM, Gehrman P, Lockley SW, Rajaratnam SMW. Neurobehavioral performance impairment in insomnia: Relationships with self-reported sleep and daytime functioning.
Sleep 2014; 37(1): 107-116. [PMID: 24470700]

Sinclair KL, Ponsford JL, Taffe J, Lockley SW, Rajaratnam SMW. Randomised controlled trial of light therapy for fatigue following traumatic brain injury.
Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 2014; 28(4):303-13. [PMID: 24213962]

Barger LK*, Wright Jr KP*, Burke TM, Chinoy ED, Ronda JM, Lockley SW, Czeisler CA. Sleep and cognitive function of crewmembers and mission controllers working 24-hour shifts during a simulated 105-day spaceflight mission.
Acta Astronautica 2014; 93(1): 230-42. *Joint first authors

Stevens RG, Brainard GC, Blask DE, Lockley SW, Motta ME.
Breast cancer and circadian disruption from electric lighting in the modern world [Review]. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2014; 64(3):207-18. [PMID: 24604162]

Lucas RJ†, Peirson SN†, Berson DM, Brown TM, Cooper HM, Czeisler CA, Figueiro MG, Gamlin PD, Lockley SW, O'Hagan JB, Price LL, Provencio I, Skene DJ, Brainard GC.
Measuring and using light in the melanopsin age [Review]. †Joint first authors.
Trends in Neurosciences 2014; 37(1): 1-9. [PMID: 24287308]

Ftouni S, Rahman SA, Crowley KE, Anderson C, Rajaratnam SMW, Lockley SW. Temporal dynamics of ocular indicators of sleepiness across sleep restriction.
Journal of Biological Rhythms 2013; 28(6):412-24. [PMID: 24336419]

Andersen M, Gochenour SJ, Lockley SW. Modeling ‘non-visual’ effects of daylighting in a residential environment.
Building and Environment 2013; 70:138-149.

Stevens RG, Brainard GC, Blask DE, Lockley SW, Motta ME.
Adverse health effects of nighttime lighting: comments on American Medical Association policy statement.
Am J Prev Med. 2013;45(3):343-6. [PMID: 23953362]

Vandewalle G*, Collignon O*, Hull JT, Daneault V, G Albouy, Lepore F, Doyon J, Czeisler CA, Dumont M, Lockley SW†, Carrier J†. Blue light stimulates cognitive brain activity in visually blind individuals.
Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2013; 25(12):2072-85. * Joint first authors; † Joint senior authors. [PMID: 23859643]

Flynn-Evans EE, Mucci L, Stevens RG, Lockley SW.
Shiftwork and Prostate Specific Antigen in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2013; 105(17):1292-7. [PMID: 23943864]

Brainard GC, Coyle W, Ayers M, Kemp J, Warfield B, Maida J, Bowen C, Bernecker C, Lockley SW, Hanifin JP. Solid-state lighting for the International Space Station: Tests of visual performance and melatonin regulations.
Acta Astronautica; in press.

Sigurðardóttir LG, Valdimarsdóttir UA, Mucci LA, Fall K, Rider JR, Schernhammer ES, Czeisler CA, Launer L, Harris T, Stampfer M, Guðnason V, Lockley SW. Sleep disruption among elderly men and risk of prostate cancer.
Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2013; 22(5):872-9. [PMID: 23652374]

Shekleton JA, Rajaratnam SMW, Gooley JJ, Van Reen E, Czeisler CA, Lockley SW. Improved neurobehavioural performance during the wake maintenance zone.
Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine 2013; 9(4): 353-62. [PMID: 23585751]

Ftouni S, Sletten TL, Howard M, Anderson C, Lenné MG, Lockley SW, Rajaratnam SM. Objective and subjective measures of sleepiness, and their associations with on-road driving events in shift workers.
Journal of Sleep Research 2013; 22(1):58-69. [PMID: 22861524]

Crowley KE, Rajaratnam SM, Shea SA, Epstein LJ, Czeisler CA, Lockley SW. Evaluation of a single-channel nasal pressure device to assess obstructive sleep apnea risk in laboratory and home environments.
Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine 2013;9(2):109-116. [PMID: 23372462]

St  Hilaire MA, Sullivan JP, Anderson C, Cohen DA, Barger LK, Lockley SW, Klerman EB.
Classifying performance impairment in response to sleep loss using pattern recognition  algorithms on single session testing.
Accident Analysis & Prevention 2013 50:992-1002. [PMID: 22959616]

Rüger M, St Hilaire MA, Brainard G, Khalsa SB, Kronauer RE, Czeisler CA, Lockley SW.
Human phase response curve to a single 6.5-h pulse of short-wavelength light.
Journal of Physiology (London) 2013; 591(Pt 1):353-63. [PMID: 23090946]

Gooley JJ, Ho Mien I, St Hilaire MA, Yeo SC, Chua EC, van Reen E, Hanley CJ, Hull JT, Czeisler CA, Lockley SW. Melanopsin and rod-cone photoreceptors play different roles in mediating pupillary light responses during exposure to continuous light in humans.
Journal of Neuroscience 2012; 32(41): 14242-53. [PMID: 23055493]

Barger LK, Sullivan JP, Vincent AS, Fiedler ER, McKenna LM, Flynn-Evans EE, Gilliland K, Sipes WE, Smith PH, Brainard GC, Lockley SW. Learning to live on a mars day: Fatigue countermeasures during the Phoenix Mars Lander mission.
Sleep 2012; 35(10):1423-35. [PMID:  23024441]

St Hilaire MA, Gooley JJ, Khalsa SBS, Kronauer RE, Czeisler CA, Lockley SW. Human Phase Response Curve (PRC) to a 1-hour pulse of bright white light.
Journal of Physiology (London) 2012; 590(Pt 13):3035-45. [PMID: 22547633]

Anderson C, Sullivan JP, Flynn-Evans EE, Cade BE, Czeisler CA, Lockley SW. Deterioration of neurobehavioral performance in resident physicians during repeated exposure to extended duration work shifts.
Sleep 2012; 35(8):1137-46. [PMID: 22851809]

Chang AM, Santhi N, St Hilaire MA, Gronfier C, Bradstreet DS, Duffy JF, Lockley SW, Kronauer RE, Czeisler CA. Human duration responses to bright light.
Journal of Physiology (London) 2012; 590(Pt 13):3103-12. [PMID: 22526883]

Klerman H, St. Hilaire MA, Kronauer RE, Gooley JJ, Gronfier C, Hull JT, Lockley SW, Santhi N, Wang W, Klerman EB. Analysis method and experimental conditions affect computed circadian phase from melatonin data.
PLoS ONE. 2012; 7(4): e33836. [PMID: 22511928]

Andersen M, Mardaljevic J, Lockley SW. A framework for predicting the non-visual effects of daylight – Part I: photobiology-based model.
Lighting Research and Technology 2012; 44:37-43.

Rajaratnam SMW, Barger LK, Lockley SW, Shea SA, Wang W, Landrigan CP, O’Brien CS, Qadri S, Sullivan JP, Cade BE, Epstein LJ, White DP, Czeisler CA. Sleep disorders, health and safety in police officers.
Journal of the American Medical Association. 2011; 306(23):2567-78. [PMID: 22187276]

Bajaj A, Rosner B, Lockley SW, Schernhammer ES. Validation of a light questionnaire with real-life photopic illuminance measurements: The Harvard light exposure assessment questionnaire.
Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 2011; 20(7):1341-9. [PMID: 21737411]

Gooley JJ, Chamberlain K, Smith KA, Khalsa SBS, Rajaratnam SMW, Van Reen E, Zeitzer JM, Czeisler CA, Lockley SW. Exposure to room light prior to bedtime suppresses melatonin onset and shortens melatonin duration in humans.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011; 96(3):E463-72. [PMID: 21193540]

Sletten TL, Vincenzi S, Redman JR, Lockley SW, Rajaratnam SM. Timing of sleep and its relationship with the endogenous melatonin rhythm.
Front Neurol. 2010 Nov 1;1:137. [PMID: 21188265]

Pagani L, Semenova EA, Moriggi E, Revell VL, Hack LM, Lockley SW, Arendt J, Skene DJ, Meier F, Izakovic J, Wirz-Justice A, Cajochen C, Sergeeva OJ, Cheresiz SV, Danilenko KV, Eckert A, Brown SA. The physiological period length of the human circadian clock in vivo is directly proportional to period in human fibroblasts.
PLoS One. 2010 Oct 15;5(10):e13376. [PMID: 21042402]

Gordon JA, Alexander EK, Lockley SW, Evans EE, Venkatan SK, Landrigan CP, Czeisler CA. Does simulator-based clinical performance correlate with actual hospital behavior? The effects of extended work hours on patient care provided by medical interns.
Academic Medicine 2010; 85(10):1583-1588. [PMID: 20881679]

Jung CM, Khalsa SBS, Scheer FAJL, Cajochen C, Lockley SW, Czeisler CA, Wright Jr KP.
Acute effects of bright light exposure on cortisol levels during the rising and descending phases of the circadian rhythm of cortisol.
Journal of Biological Rhythms 2010; 25(3): 208-16. [PMID: 20484692]

Gooley JJ, Rajaratnam SMW, Brainard GC, Kronauer RE, Czeisler CA, Lockley SW. Spectral responses of the human circadian system depend on the irradiance and duration of exposure to light.
Science Translational Medicine 2010; 2, 31ra33. [PMID: 20463367]

Flynn-Evans EE, Stevens RG, Tabandeh H, Schernhammer ES, Lockley SW. Total visual blindness is protective against breast cancer.
Cancer Causes Control 2009; 20(9):1753-6. [PMID: 19649715]

Flynn-Evans EE, Stevens RG, Tabandeh H, Schernhammer ES, Lockley SW. Effect of light perception on menarche in blind women.
Ophthalmic Epidemiology, 2009; 16: 243-248. [PMID: 19874146]

Aeschbach D, Lockyer BJ, Dijk D-J, Lockley SW, Nuwayser ES, Nichols LD, Czeisler CA. Use of transdermal melatonin delivery to improve sleep maintenance during the daytime.
Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2009; 86(4): 378-82. [PMID: 19606092]

Figueiro MG, Brainard GC, Lockley SW, Revell VL, White R. Light and Human Health: An overview of the impact of optical radiation on visual, circadian, neuroendocrine and neurobehavioral responses.
Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) Technical Memorandum TM-18-08.

Cappuccio FP, Bakewell A, Taggart FM, Ward G, Chen J, Sullivan JP, Edmunds M, Pounder R, Landrigan CP, Lockley SW, Peile E. Implementing a 48h EWTD-compliant rota for junior doctors in the UK does not compromise patients’ safety: Assessor-blind pilot comparison.
Quarterly Journal of Medicine, 2009; 102(4):271-82. [PMID: 19174502]

Anderson JL, Glod CA, Dai J, Cao Re Y, Lockley SW. Lux versus wavelength in light treatment of Seasonal Affective Disorder.
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 2009; 120: 203-212. [PMID: 19207131]

Pechacek CS, Andersen M, Lockley SW.
Preliminary method for prospective analysis of the circadian efficacy of (Day)light with applications to healthcare architecture.
LEUKOS: The Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America 2008; 5(1): 1-26.

Lockley SW, Dijk D-J, Kosti O, Skene DJ, Arendt J. Alertness, mood and performance rhythm disturbances associated with circadian sleep disorders in the blind.
Journal of Sleep Research 2008; 17 (2): 207-216. [PMID: 18482109]

Zaidi FH, Hull JT, Peirson SN, Wulff K, Aeschbach D, Gooley JJ, Brainard GC, Gregory-Evans K, Rizzo III JF, Czeisler CA, Foster RG, Moseley MJ, Lockley SW. Short-wavelength light sensitivity of circadian, pupillary, and visual awareness in humans lacking an outer retina.
Current Biology 2007; 17(24):2122-2128. [PMID: 18082405]

Lockley SW, Barger LK, Ayas NT, Rothschild JM, Czeisler CA, Landrigan CP. Effects of healthcare provider work hours and sleep deprivation on safety and performance.
Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf, 2007; 33(11, Suppl 1): 7-18. [PMID: 18173162]

Landrigan CP, Czeisler CA, Barger LK, Ayas NT, Rothschild JM, Lockley SW. Reducing fatigue-related errors and injuries in healthcare: Effective implementation of work hour limits and systemic improvements.
Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf, 2007; 33(11, Suppl 1): 19-29. [PMID: 18173163]

Lockley SW, Arendt J, Skene DJ. Visual impairment and circadian rhythm disorders.
Dialogues Clin Neurosci, 2007; 9(3):301-314. [PMID: 17969867]

Zeitzer JM, Duffy JF, Lockley SW, Dijk D-J, Czeisler CA. Plasma melatonin rhythms in young and older humans during sleep, sleep deprivation, and wake.
Sleep 2007; 30(11):1437-1443. [PMID: 18041478]

Stevens RG, Blask DE, Brainard GC, Hansen J, Lockley SW, Provencio I, Rea MS, Reinlib LE. The role of environmental lighting and circadian disruption in cancer and other diseases.
Environ Health Perspectives 2007;115(9):1357-62. [PMID: 17805428]

Lockley SW. Safety considerations for the use of blue-light blocking glasses in shift-workers.
 J Pineal Res 2007;42(2): 210-211. [PMID: 17286754]

Lockley SW, Gooley JJ. Circadian photoreception: spotlight on the brain.
Curr Biol. 2006 Sep 19;16(18):R795-7. [PMID: 16979545]

Lockley SW, Evans EE, Scheer FA, Brainard GC, Czeisler CA, Aeschbach D. Short-wavelength sensitivity for the direct effects of light on alertness, vigilance, and the waking electroencephalogram in humans.
Sleep. 2006 Feb 1;29(2):161-8. [PMID: 16494083]

Horrocks N, Pounder R, Royal College of Physicians Short-Term Working Group on Medical Nocturnal Shiftwork. Working the night shift: preparation, survival and recovery - a guide for junior doctors.
Clinical Medicine 2006; 6(1): 61-7. [PMID: 16521358]

Lockley SW. Timed melatonin treatment for delayed sleep phase syndrome: the importance of knowing circadian phase.
Sleep. 2005 Oct 1;28(10):1214-6. [PMID: 16295202]

Rothschild JM, Landrigan CP, Cronin JW, Kaushal R, Lockley SW, Burdick E, Stone PH, Lilly CM, Katz JT, Czeisler CA, Bates DW. The Critical Care Safety Study: The incidence and nature of adverse events and serious medical errors in intensive care.
Crit Care Med. 2005 Aug;33(8):1694-700. [PMID: 16096443]

Landrigan CP, Rothschild JM, Cronin JW, Kaushal R, Burdick E, Katz JT, Lilly CM, Stone PH, Lockley SW, Bates DW, Czeisler CA. Effect of reducing interns' work hours on serious medical errors in intensive care units.
N Engl J Med. 2004 Oct 28;351(18):1838-48. [PMID: 15509817]

Lockley SW, Cronin JW, Evans EE, Cade BE, Lee CJ, Landrigan CP, Rothschild JM, Katz JT, Lilly CM, Stone PH, Aeschbach D, Czeisler CA; Harvard Work Hours, Health and Safety Group. Effect of reducing interns' weekly work hours on sleep and attentional failures.
 N Engl J Med. 2004 Oct 28;351(18):1829-37. [PMID: 15509816]

Hack LM, Lockley SW, Arendt J, Skene DJ. The effects of low-dose 0.5-mg melatonin on the free-running circadian rhythms of blind subjects.
 J Biol Rhythms. 2003 Oct;18(5):420-9. [PMID: 14582858]

Lockley SW, Brainard GC, Czeisler CA. High sensitivity of the human circadian melatonin rhythm to resetting by short wavelength light.
 J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Sep;88(9):4502-5. [PMID: 12970330]

Robilliard DL, Archer SN, Arendt J, Lockley SW, Hack LM, English J, Leger D, Smits MG, Williams A, Skene DJ, Von Schantz M. The 3111 Clock gene polymorphism is not associated with sleep and circadian rhythmicity in henotypically characterized human subjects.
J Sleep Res. 2002 Dec;11(4):305-12. [PMID: 12464098]

Lockley SW, Skene DJ, James K, Thapan K, Wright J, Arendt J. Melatonin administration can entrain the free-running circadian system of blind subjects.
J Endocrinol. 2000 Jan;164(1):R1-6. [PMID: 10607943]

Lockley SW, Skene DJ, Arendt J. Comparison between subjective and actigraphic measurement of sleep and sleep rhythms.
J Sleep Res. 1999 Sep;8(3):175-83. [PMID: 10476003]

Skene DJ, Lockley SW, James K, Arendt J. Correlation between urinary cortisol and 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythms in field studies of blind subjects.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1999 Jun;50(6):715-9. [PMID: 10468942]

Lockley SW, Skene DJ, Butler LJ, Arendt J. Sleep and activity rhythms are related to circadian phase in the blind.
Sleep. 1999 Aug 1;22(5):616-23. [PMID: 10450596]

Skene DJ, Lockley SW, Thapan K, Arendt J. Effects of light on human circadian rhythms.
Reprod Nutr Dev. 1999 May-Jun;39(3):295-304. [PMID: 10420432]

Tabandeh H, Lockley SW, Buttery R, Skene DJ, Defrance R, Arendt J, Bird AC. Disturbance of sleep in blindness.
Am J Ophthalmol. 1998 Nov;126(5):707-12. [PMID: 9822235]

Lockley SW, Skene DJ, Thapan K, English J, Ribeiro D, Haimov I, Hampton S, Middleton B, von Schantz M, Arendt J. Extraocular light exposure does not suppress plasma melatonin in humans.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Sep;83(9):3369-72. [PMID: 9745457]

Lockley SW, Skene DJ, Arendt J, Tabandeh H, Bird AC, Defrance R. Relationship between melatonin rhythms and visual loss in the blind.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Nov;82(11):3763-70. [PMID: 9360538]

Lockley SW, Skene DJ, Tabandeh H, Bird AC, Defrance R, Arendt J. Relationship between napping and melatonin in the blind.
J Biol Rhythms. 1997 Feb;12(1):16-25. [PMID: 9104687]

Lockley S, Tabandeh H, Skene D, Buttery R, Bird A, Defrace R, Arendt J. Day-time naps and melatonin in blind people.
Lancet. 1995 Dec 2;346(8988):1491. No abstract available. Erratum in: Lancet
1996 Jan 20;347(8995):206. [PMID: 7491012]

Books
Cappuccio FP, Miller MA, Lockley SW, editors. Sleep, health and society: From Aetiology to Public Health, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 2010. ISBN13: 9780199566594; ISBN10: 0199566593.
Click here to read the press release for this book

Lockley SW, Foster RG. Sleep: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 2012. ISBN13: 9780199587858; ISBN10: 019958785X.

Reviews, Chapters, Etc.
Uchiyama M, Lockley SW. Non-24-hour sleep–wake disorder in sighted and blind patients [Review]. Sleep Medicine Clinics of North America 2015; 10(4):495-516. [PMID: 26568125]

Cohen S, Conduit R, Lockley SW, Rajaratnam SM, Cornish KM. The relationship between sleep and behavior in autism spectrum disorders (ASD): A review. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders 2014; 6(1):44. [PMID: 25530819 PMCID: PMC4271434]

Kelley P, Lockley SW, Foster RG, Kelley J. Synchronizing education to adolescent biology: ‘Let teens sleep, start school later’. Learning, Media and Technology 2014; DOI:10.1080/17439884.2014.942666

Lockley SW. Special considerations and future directions in Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders diagnosis. [Book Chapter].
In: Kushida CA, editor. Encyclopedia of Sleep, Waltham, MA: Academic Press; 2013; Vol. 3, 138-149.

Lockley SW, Uchiyama M. Non-24-h sleep-wake syndrome (freerunning type, nonentrained type, hypernychthemeral syndrome) in sighted and blind patients. [Book Chapter].
In: Kushida CA, editor. Encyclopedia of Sleep, Waltham, MA: Academic Press; 2013; Vol. 3, 34-40.

Lockley SW, Arendt J, Skene DJ. Visual impairment and circadian rhythm sleep disorders. [Book Chapter].
In: Kushida CA, editor. Encyclopedia of Sleep, Waltham, MA: Academic Press; 2013; Vol. 4, 428-437.

Sigurðardóttir LG, Valdimarsdóttir UA, Fall K, Rider JR, Lockley SW, Schernhammer ES Mucci LA. Circadian disruption, sleep loss and prostate cancer risk: A systematic review of epidemiological studies. [Review]
Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2012; 21(7):1002-11. [PMID: 22564869]

Lockley SW. Effects on human health. [Book Chapter]
In: Fighting light pollution: Smart lighting solutions for individuals and communities, International Dark Sky Association. Mechanicsburg, USA: Stackpole Books; 2012; ISBN-10: 0811736377. ISBN-13: 978-0811736374.

Lockley SW. Overview of the circadian timekeeping system and diagnostic tools for circadian rhythm sleep disorders. [Book Chapter].
In: Barkoukis T, Matheson JK, Ferber R, Doghramji K, editors. Therapy in Sleep Medicine, Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier; 2011; 363-377.

Ftouni S, Sletten TL, Barger LK, Lockley SW, Rajaratnam SMW. Shift Work Disorder. [Book Chapter].
In: Barkoukis T, Matheson JK, Ferber R, Doghramji K, editors. Therapy in Sleep Medicine, Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier; 2011; 378-389.

Lockley SW, Cohen D, Harper DG, Uchiyama M. Other circadian rhythm disorders: Non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder and irregular sleep-wake disorder. [Book Chapter].
In: Barkoukis T, Matheson JK, Ferber R, Doghramji K, editors. Therapy in Sleep Medicine, Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier; 2011; 411-424.

Loddenkemper T, Lockley SW, Kaleyias J, Kothare SV.
Chronobiology of epilepsy: Diagnostic and therapeutic implications of chrono-epileptology. [Review].
Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology 2011; 28(2):146-53. [PMID: 21399517]

Cappuccio FP, Miller MA, Lockley SW. Sleep, health and society: the contribution of epidemiology [Book Chapter].
In: Cappuccio FP, Miller MA, Lockley SW, editors. Sleep, health and society: From Aetiology to Public Health, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 2010; pp 1-8.

Lockley SW. Principles of sleep-wake regulation [Book Chapter].
In: Cappuccio FP, Miller MA, Lockley SW, editors. Sleep, health and society: From Aetiology to Public Health, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 2010; pp 9-34.

Uchiyama M, Lockley SW. Non-24-hour sleep–wake syndrome in sighted and blind patients [Review].
Sleep Medicine Clinics of North America 2009; 195-211.

Barger LK, Lockley SW, Rajaratnam SW, Landrigan CP. Neurobehavioral, health and safety consequences associated with shift work in safety sensitive professions [Review]. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports 2009;9(2):155-64. [PMID: 19268039]

Lockley SW. Human health implications of light pollution. [Book Chapter]
In: Mizon W, editor. Blinded by the Light? Campaign for Dark Skies (CfDS) Handbook 2009, London, UK: British Astronomical Association; 2009; 21-25.

Lockley SW. Circadian rhythms: Influence of light in humans. [Book Chapter].
In: Squire LR, editor. Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, Oxford, UK: Academic Press; 2009; 5: 971-986.

Weaver DR, Lockley SW. Circadian rhythms: Melatonin regulation of circadian rhythmicity in vertebrates. [Book Chapter].
In: Squire LR, editor. Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, Oxford, UK: Academic Press; 2009; 5: 721-732.

Wright Jr. KP, Drake CL, Lockley SW. Diagnostic tools for circadian rhythm sleep disorders. [Book Chapter].
In: Kushida CA, editor. Handbook of Sleep Disorders, New York, USA: Informa Healthcare; 2009; 147-173.

Cappuccio FP, Lockley SW, Landrigan CP. Response to Comments.
Quarterly Journal of Medicine, 2009; 102(5):363-4. [PMID: 19318371]

Figueiro MG, Brainard GC, Lockley SW, Revell VL, White R. Light and Human Health: An overview of the impact of optical radiation on visual, circadian, neuroendocrine and neurobehavioral responses.
Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) Technical Memorandum TM-18-08.

Lockley SW. Spectral sensitivity of circadian, neuroendocrine and neurobehavioral effects of light. [Proceedings]
Journal of the Human-Environment System 2008; 11(1): 43-49.

Cappuccio FP, Lockley SW. Safety and the flying doctor. [Letter]
British Medical Journal 2008; 336 (7637): 218. [PMID: 18219046]

Lockley SW, Barger LK, Ayas NT, Rothschild JM, Czeisler CA, Landrigan CP. Effects of healthcare provider work hours and sleep deprivation on safety and performance.
Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf, 2007; 33(11, Suppl 1): 7-18. Review. [PMID: 18173162]

Landrigan CP, Czeisler CA, Barger LK, Ayas NT, Rothschild JM, Lockley SW. Reducing fatigue-related errors and injuries in healthcare: Effective implementation of work hour limits and systemic improvements.
Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf, 2007; 33(11, Suppl 1): 19-29. Review. [PMID: 18173163]

Lockley SW, Arendt J, Skene DJ. Visual impairment and circadian rhythm disorders.
Dialogues Clin Neurosci, 2007; 9(3):301-314. Review [PMID: 17969867]

Stevens RG, Blask DE, Brainard GC, Hansen J, Lockley SW, Provencio I, Rea MS, Reinlib LE. The role of environmental lighting and circadian disruption in cancer and other diseases.
Environ Health Perspectives 2007;115(9):1357-62. Review. [PMID: 17805428]

Lockley SW. Safety considerations for the use of blue-light blocking glasses in shift-workers. [Letter]
J Pineal Res 2007;42(2): 210-211. [PMID: 17286754]

Lockley SW, Gooley JJ. Circadian photoreception: spotlight on the brain. [Editorial]
Curr Biol. 2006 Sep 19;16(18):R795-7. [PMID: 16979545]

Horrocks N, Pounder R, Royal College of Physicians Short-Term Working Group on Medical Nocturnal Shiftwork. Working the night shift: preparation, survival and recovery - a guide for junior doctors.
Clinical Medicine 2006; 6(1): 61-7. [PMID: 16521358]

Lockley SW, Landrigan CP, Barger LK, Czeisler CA; Harvard Work Hours Health
and Safety Group. When policy meets physiology: the challenge of reducing resident work hours.
Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2006 Aug;449:116-27. Review. [PMID: 16770285]

Lockley SW. Timed melatonin treatment for delayed sleep phase syndrome: the importance of knowing circadian phase. [Editorial]
Sleep. 2005 Oct 1;28(10):1214-6. [PMID: 16295202]

Dijk DJ, Lockley SW. Integration of human sleep-wake regulation and circadian rhythmicity.
J Appl Physiol. 2002 Feb;92(2):852-62. Review. [PMID: 11796701]

Skene DJ, Lockley SW, Arendt J. Use of melatonin in the treatment of phase shift and sleep disorders.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 1999;467:79-84. Review. [PMID: 10721041]

Skene DJ, Lockley SW, Thapan K, Arendt J. Effects of light on human circadian rhythms.
Reprod Nutr Dev. 1999 May-Jun;39(3):295-304. [PMID: 10420432]

Skene DJ, Lockley SW, Arendt J. Melatonin in circadian sleep disorders in the blind.
Biol Signals Recept. 1999 Jan-Apr;8(1-2):90-5. Review. [PMID: 10085469]

Arendt J, Skene DJ, Middleton B, Lockley SW, Deacon S. Efficacy of melatonin treatment in jet lag, shift work, and blindness.
J Biol Rhythms. 1997 Dec;12(6):604-17. Review. [PMID: 9406036]



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