Sleep Research Society &

American Academy of Sleep Medicine

Undergraduate, Graduate and Postgraduate Training Opportunities 

in Basic and Clinical Sleep Research and Sleep Medicine

2001 - V Edition


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University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas


University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas

Department of Psychiatry, Sleep Study Unit

5323 Harry Hines Boulevard

Dallas, TX 75390-9070



Phone: (214) 648-7350

Fax: (214) 648-7359

Faculty (Name, Email address)

Roseanne Armitage, Ph.D. – Director

Robert Hoffmann, Ph.D.

Gerald Marks, Ph.D.

Christopher Sinton, Ph.D.

John Herman, Ph.D.

Types of Training Available


Research Assistantship and Internships


Medical Students and Residents Ph.D. in Neuroscience or Clinical Psychology


Fellowships are available, Residency Research Rotations

Types of Funding Available:

Undergraduate and graduate trainees are funded from research grants. Post-doctoral fellowships compete for NIH NSF grants, Seay Fellowship (private support).

Current Trainees (Names and Email address):


Trainees who have completed training [in the past five years] and current status (Name, Title, Institution, Email):

Irma Aguilar, Ph.D. Professor of Nursing, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX

William Hendrickse, M.D. Clinical faculty, Dallas VAMC

Kate McGraw, Ph.D. Psychologist with U.S. Air Force

Primary Research and/or Clinical Focus of Laboratory

Quantitative EEG analyses
Sleep physiology
Biological rhythms
Gender differences
REM and NREM regulatory mechanisms
Antidepressant effects on sleep
Cholinergic mechanisms
Cortisol regulation in animals
Basic Human Sleep
Sleep in Psychiatric Disorders
Animal Neurophysiology

Technical Capabilities of Lab

In Humans:

5 bedroom human research lab
The labs are completely "paperless" with on-line quantitative EEG analysis (PAA, PSA)
Tympanic temperature measurement
24-hour blood sampling

In Animals:

2 neurophysiology labs equipped for 24-hour recording, chronic implant studies, and microiontophoresis and facilities for stereotoxic surgery

Primary Training Focus

Human (Basic)
Human (Clinical Research)

Other Training Opportunities

Post-doctoral research fellowship in biology, physiology, biochemistry, and genetics

Representative Publications For the Last Five Years

Armitage R: Effects of antidepressant treatment on sleep EEG in depression. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychopharmacology, 10(1, Supplement 5):22-25, 1996.

German DC, Nelson EL, Liang C-L, Speciale SG, Sinton CM, Sonsalla PK: The neurotoxin MPTP causes degeneration of specific nucleus A8, A9 and A10 dopaminergic neurons in the mouse. Neurodegeneration, 5:299-312, 1996.

Hoffmann RF, Bonato RA, Armitage R, Wimmer FL: Changes in direct current potentials during sleep deprivation. Journal of Sleep Research, 5:143-149, 1996.

Liang C-L, Sinton CM, German DC: Midbrain dopaminergic neurons in the mouse: colocalization with calbindin-D28k and calretinin. Neuroscience, 75:523-533, 1996.

Liang C-L, Sinton CM, Sonsalla PK, German DC: The midbrain dopaminergic neurons that contain calbindin-D28k are relatively invulnerable to MPTP-induced neurodegeneration. Neurodegeneration, 5:312-318, 1996.

Marks GA, Speciale SG, Shaffery JP: Sleep/wake behavior in the ferret, Mustela putorius furo. Sleep, 19(2):83-93, 1996.

Nelson EL, Liang C-L, Sinton CM, German DC: Midbrain dopaminergic neurons in the mouse: computer-assisted mapping. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 369:361-371, 1996.

Oksenberg AS, Shaffery JP, Marks GA, Speciale SG, Mihailoff G, Roffwarg HP: Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation in kittens amplifies LGN cell-size disparity induced by monocular deprivation. Developmental Brain Research, 97:51-61, 1996.

Armitage R, Emslie G, Rintelmann J: The effect of fluoxetine on sleep EEG in childhood depression: a preliminary report. Neuropsychopharmacology, 17(4):241-245, 1997.

Armitage R, Hoffmann R: Sleep electrophysiology of major depressive disorders. Current Review of Mood and Anxiety Disorders, 1:139-151, 1997.

Armitage R, Sussman N: Effects of fluoxetine on sleep architecture and quality of sleep in depressed patients. Primary Psychiatry, 4(9):34-37, 1997.

Armitage R, Trivedi M, Hoffmann R, Rush AJ: The relationship between objective and subjective sleep measures in depressed patients and healthy controls. Depression and Anxiety, 5:97-102, 1997.

Armitage R, Yonkers K, Cole D, Rush AJ: A multicenter, double-blind comparison of the effects of nefazodone and fluoxetine on sleep architecture and quality of sleep in depressed outpatients. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 17(3):161-168, 1997.

Joho RH, Ho CS, Armitage R, Marks GA: Physiological and behavioral alterations in a mutant mouse deficient for the voltage-gated K+ channel Kv3.1. European Journal of Physiology, 434:R90-R91, 1997.

Marks GA, Birabil CG: Enhancement of rapid eye movement sleep in the rat by cholinergic and adenosinergic agonists infused into the pontine reticular formation. Neuroscience, 86:29-37, 1998.

Rochlen A, Hoffmann R, Armitage R: EEG correlates of dream recall in depressed outpatients and healthy controls. Dreaming, 8(2):109-123, 1998.

Rush AJ, Armitage R, Gillin JC, Yonkers KA, Winokur A, Moldofsky H, Vogel GW, Kaplita SB, Fleming JB, Montplaisir J, Erman MK, Albala BJ, McQuade RD: Comparative effects of nefazodone and fluoxetine on sleep in outpatients with major depressive disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 44(2):3-14, 1998.

Shaffery JP, Oksenberg A, Marks GA, Speciale SG, Mihailoff G, Roffwarg HP: REM sleep deprivation in monocularly occluded kittens reduces the size of cells in LGN monocular segment. Sleep, 21:837-845, 1998.

Armitage R: The effects of nefazodone on sleep in depressed patients and healthy controls. International Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Practice, 3:73-79, 1999.

Armitage R, Hoffmann RF, Rush AJ: Biological rhythm disturbance in depression: temporal coherence of ultradian sleep EEG rhythms. Psychological Medicine, 29:1435-1448, 1999.

Chemelli RM, Willie JT, Sinton CM, Elmquist JK, Scammell T, Lee C, Richardson JA, Williams SC, Xiong Y, Kisanuki Y, Fitch TE, Nakazato M, Hammer RE, Saper CB, Yanagisawa M: Narcolepsy in orexin knockout mice: Molecular genetics of sleep regulation. Cell 98: 437-451,1999.

Hoffmann RF, Armitage R, Trivedi MH, Rush AJ: The effects of fluoxetine on quantitative sleep EEG in depressed outpatients. Sleep and Hypnosis, 1(4):217-224, 1999.

Holt DJ, Herman MM, Hyde TM, Kleinman JE, Sinton CM, German DC, Hersh LB, Graybiel AM, Saper CB: Evidence for a deficit in cholinergic interneurons in the striatum in schizophrenia. Neuroscience, 94:21-31, 1999.

Joho JH, Ho C-S, Marks GA: Increased -and decreased -oscillations in a mouse deficient for a potassium channel expressed in fast-spiking interneurons. Journal of Neurophysiology, 82:1855-1864, 1999.

Manber R, Armitage R: Sex steroids and sleep. Sleep, 22:540-555, 1999.

Marks GA, Roffwarg HP, Shaffery JP: Neuronal activity in the lateral geniculate nucleus associated with ponto-geniculo-occipital (PGO) waves lacks lamina specificity. Brain Research, 815:21-28, 1999.

Shaffery JP, Roffwarg HP, Speciale SG, Marks GA: PGO wave suppression amplifies LGN cell-size changes in monocularly deprived kittens. Developmental Brain Research, 114:109-119, 1999.

Sinton CM, Fitch TE, Gershenfeld HK: The effects of leptin on REM sleep and slow wave delta in the rat are reversed by food deprivation. Journal of Sleep Research, 8:197-203, 1999.

Trivedi MH, Rush AJ, Armitage R, Gullion CM, Grannemann BD, Orsulak PJ, Roffwarg HP: Effects of fluoxetine on the polysomnogram in outpatients with major depression. Neuropsychopharmacology, 20(5):447-459, 1999.

Agarwal VR, Sinton CM, Liang C-L, Fisher C, German DC, Simpson ER: Upregulation of estrogen receptors in the forebrain of aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 162:9-16, 2000.

Armitage R, Emslie GJ, Hoffmann RF, Weinberg WA, Kowatch RA, Rintelmann J, Rush AJ: Ultradian rhythms and temporal coherence in sleep EEG in depressed children and adolescents. Biological Psychiatry, 47:338-350, 2000.

Armitage R, Hoffmann R, Fitch T, Trivedi M, Rush AJ: Temporal characteristics of delta activity during NREM sleep in depressed outpatients and healthy adults: group and sex effects. Sleep, 23(5):607-617, 2000.

Armitage R, Hoffmann R, Trivedi, M, Rush AJ: Slow-wave activity in NREM sleep: sex and age effects in depressed outpatients and healthy controls. Psychiatry Research, 95:201-213, 2000.

Fulton MK, Armitage R, Rush AJ: Sleep electroencephalographic coherence abnormalities in individuals at high risk for depression: a pilot study. Biological Psychiatry, 47(7):618-625, 2000.

Hoffmann R, Hendrickse W, Rush AJ, Armitage R: Slow-wave activity during NREM sleep in men with schizophrenia and major depressive disorders. Psychiatry Research, 95:215-225, 2000.

Marks GA, Birabil CG: Infusion of adenylyl cyclase inhibitor, SQ22,536, into the medial pontine reticular formation of rats enhances REM sleep. Neuroscience, 98:311-315, 2000.

Sinton CM, Fitch TE, Petty F, Haley RW: Stressful manipulations that elevate corticosterone reduce blood-brain barrier permeability to pyridostigmine in the rat. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 165:99-105, 2000.

Sinton CM, McCarley RW: Neuroanatomical and neurophysiological aspects of sleep: basic science and clinical relevance. Seminars in Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 5:6-19, 2000.

Armitage R: The effects of antidepressants on sleep in patients with depression. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 45: 803-809, 2000.

Armitage R, Emslie GJ, Hoffmann RF, Rintelmann J, Rush AJ: Delta sleep EEG in depressed adolescent females and healthy controls. Journal of Affective Disorders, 63: 139-148, 2001.

Sinton CM, McCarley RW: Sleep disorders. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences, Macmillan: London, in press, 2000.

Sinton CM, McCarley RW: Sleep. Yearbook of Science & Technology, McGraw-Hill, in press, 2000.

Armitage R, Hoffman RF: Sleep EEG, gender and depression.  Sleep Medicine Reviews. In press 2001.

ASrmitage R, Smith C, Thompson S, Hoffman R: Sex differences in slow-wave activity in response to sleep deprivation.  Sleep Research Online. In Press 2001.

Emslie GJ, Armitage R, Weinberg WA, Rush AJ, Mayes TL Hoffman RF: Sleep polysomnography as a predictor of recurrence in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder.  International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology.  In Press 2001.

Liscombe, MP, Hoffman R., Trivedi M., Parker MK, Rush, AJ, Armitage R: Quantative EEG amplitude across REM sleep periods in depression: a preliminary study.  Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience. In Review, 2001.

Morehouse R, Kusamaker, V, Kutcher S, LeBlanc J, Hoffman R, Armitagew, R: Temporal coherence in ultradian sleep EEG rhythms in never-depressed high-risk cohort.  Biological Psychiatry. In review, 2001.

www link for the Lab

Faculty Research Interests

The sleep investigative facilities of the Department of Psychiatry, Southwestern Medical Center, comprise the UTSWMC Sleep Research Study Unit.

Individual descriptions follow:

Roseanne Armitage, Ph.D. is the Director of the Sleep Study Unit, Department of Psychiatry.
Robert Hoffmann, Ph.D. is the Associate Director of the Human Laboratory.
Gerald Marks, Ph.D. is Director of The Sleep Neurophysiology Laboratory.
Christopher Sinton, Ph.D. is the Director of The Animal Models Laboratory.
John Herman, Ph.D. is the Director of Children’s Medical Center Sleep Laboratory.

The long-term interests and activities of the Sleep Research Study Unit include:

Studies investigating biological rhythms during sleep and waking using computer quantification of EEG and in some studies along with tympanic temperature recording. This research is conducted in healthy subjects and psychiatric patients; particularly those with depression (Armitage, Hoffmann, Trivedi, Rush)
Biological markers in affective disorders, particularly in those at risk for depression and developmental changes in brain regulation during sleep (Armitage, Fulton, Rush, Emslie)
Neurochemical and neurophysiological analyses of sleep-state neuronal activities and mechanisms, using microiontophoretically-applied agents and identified single cells in the CNS (Marks, Speciale)
The function of the REM state in developmental maturation of the CNS (Marks)
Circadian and ultradian patterns of hormone production, using the rapid sampling technique (Rush, Armitage, Hoffmann)
Sleep architecture in early onset depression (Emslie, Armitage, Hoffmann, Kowatch, Rush)
Brain imaging and cerebral blood flow studies during sleep in normals and depressed patients (Devous, Trivedi, Armitage)
Tympanic temperature during sleep and REM activity and event-related potentials; and gender differences in sleep and the effects of phase of the menstrual cycle on sleep EEG (Armitage, Hoffmann)
Effects of aging on sleep (Armitage, Hoffmann)
Genetic abnormalities underlying sleep disturbance in depression (McKnight, Armitage, Hoffmann)
Antidepressant effects on sleep (Armitage, Trivedi, Hoffmann, Rush)
Course of illness and treatment prediction (Rush, Trivedi, Armitage, Emslie, Hoffmann)
Animal models of sleep abnormalities in depression (Sinton, Armitage, Hoffmann)
Psychophysiological relationships during REM sleep and dreaming (Armitage, Hoffmann)