Institution

Brigham and Women's Hospital / Harvard Medical School

Address

Division of Sleep Medicine

Department of Medicine

Brigham and Women's Hospital

Harvard Medical School

221 Longwood Avenue

Boston, Massachusetts 02115

USA

 

Phone:  (617) 732-4013 (Main Number)

FAX:     (617) 732-4015 (Circadian Medicine)

FAX:     (617) 975-0809 (Sleep Disorders Program)      

Faculty (Name, Email address):

Daniel Aeschbach, Ph.D. daeschbach@hms.harvard.edu 

Najib Ayas, M.D. nayas@rics.bwh.harvard.edu               

Charles A. Czeisler, Ph.D., M.D. (Director) caczeisler@rics.bwh.harvard.edu

Jeanne F. Duffy, M.B.A., Ph.D. jduffy@hms.harvard.edu 

Robert B. Fogel, M.D. RFOGEL@PARTNERS.ORG

Todd S. Horowitz    toddh@search.bwh.harvard.edu 

Yaqi Huang, Ph.D.  yhuang@rics.bwh.harvard.edu    

Rod J Hughes, Ph.D. (on leave)  

Meagan Jewett, Ph.D. megan_jewett@hms.harvard.edu        

Sat Bir Khalsa, Ph.D. khalsa@hms.harvard.edu         

Elizabeth B. Klerman, M.D., Ph.D. ebklerman@hms.harvard.edu 

Richard E. Kronauer, Ph.D. kronauer@deas.harvard.edu 

Liming Ling, Ph.D.   lling@partners.org                 

Atul Malhotra, M.D.  amalhotra1@partners.org      

Joseph M. Ronda, M.S.    jmronda@rics.bwh.harvard.edu  

Steven A. Shea, Ph.D. sshea@hms.harvard.edu 

David P. White, M.D. (Co-Director) dpwhite@rics.bwh.harvard.edu     

John W. Winkelman, M.D., Ph.D. jwinkelman@sleephealth.com

Other Faculty: 

Steven Amira, Ph.D. 

Larry Epstein, M.D.

Types of Training Available

Undergraduate:   

Research assistantships and internships. 

Honors thesis.

Graduate:    

Research placements are available for graduate students and medical students. 

           Masters thesis and dissertation.

Postdoctoral:    

There are postdoctoral research opportunities available.

Types of Funding Available

Undergraduate and Graduate:

Undergraduate and graduate trainees are funded from research grants, including an NIH sponsored Training Grant in Sleep, Circadian and Respiratory Neurophysiology.

Post-doctoral:

Postdocs usually apply for fellowships from National Institutes of Health (NHLBI, NIMH, NIA), National Sleep Foundation, National Science Foundation, and the National Research Council.  We also hold a Training Grant in Sleep, Circadian and Respiratory Neurophysiology.

Current Trainees (Names and Email address)

Postdoctoral Fellows:

    Laura Barger, Ph.D.        lbarger@hms.harvard.edu

    Claude Gronfier,  Ph.D.   cgronfier@hms.harvard.edu

    Michael Hilton, Ph.D.      mhilton@partners.org 

    Steven W. Lockley, Ph.D. slockley@hms.harvard.edu 

    Masaya Takahashi, Ph.D.  mtakahashi@hms.harvard.edu 

    Michelle McGuire, Ph.D.  mmcguire@rics.bwh.harvard.edu 

    Michael Stanchina, M.D.    mstanchina@partners.org 

    Yi Zhang, Ph.D.   yzhang@rics.bwh.harvard.edu

Predoctoral Fellows/Graduate Students:

    Angela Ritz-DeCecco   aritz@hms.harvard.edu 

    Joshua Gooley  joshua_gooley@student.hms.harvard.edu 

    Joseph T. Hull    jhull@rics.bwh.harvard.edu 

    Shana McCormack  shana_mmcormack@student.hms.harvard.edu  

    David Rimmer drimmer@rics.bwh.harvard.edu

Postgraduate/Undergraduate Students:

    Jason Rodriguez   jrodriguez@rics.bwh.harvard.edu  

    Alison Laffan   alaffan@lynx.neu.edu 

    Vikram Vaz     zaz@sas.harvard.edu  

    Joanna Davis

    Jen Kuhn

Trainees who have completed training [in the past five years] and current status (Name, Title, Institution, Email)

Theresa Shanahan, M.D. Pediatric Resident Tufts/New England Medical Center tlshanahan@usa.net 

Jamie Zeitzer, Ph.D. Postdoctoral Fellow University of California Los Angeles jzeitzer@ucla.edu

James K. Wyatt, Ph.D. Assistant Professor in the Department of Psychology, Rush University; Sleep Disorders Service and Research Center of Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center jwyatt@rush.edu

David Slamowitz, M.D. Assistant Professor, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center

Christian Cajochen, Ph.D. Assistant Professor University of Basel Christian.cajochen@pukbasel.ch

Megan Jewett., Ph.D. Instructor Harvard Medical School, Brigham & Women’s Hospital megan_jewett@hms.harvard.edu        

Todd S. Horowitz    toddh@search.bwh.harvard.edu  Instructor in Ophthalmology at Brigham & Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School.

Kenneth P. Wright Jr., Ph.D. Assistant Professor, University of Colorado at Boulder kenneth.wright@colorado.edu 

Theresa K. Kelly,  Ph.D. Candidate, UCLA Neuroscience Program kellytheresa@hotmail.com 

Giora Pillar, M.D., Ph.D. Technion-Israel Institute, Israel gpillar@technix-technion.ac.il 

Toshiki Akahosi, M.D. Physician, Nihon University, Tokyo, Japan Akahosi@zaz.so-net.ne.jp    

Atul Malhotra, M.D. Assistant Physician, Brigham & Women's Hospital, Instructor Harvard Medical School amalhotra1@partners.org  

Robert B. Fogel, M.D. Assistant Physician, Brigham & Women's Hospital, Instructor Harvard Medical School RFOGEL@PARTNERS.ORG

Daniel B. Forger, Ph.D. Candidate, Courant Institute New York forger@post.harvard.edu 

Takeshi Tanigawa, M.D., DMSc. Assistant Professor, Institute of Community Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Japan Tt9178@aol.com    

Henry Wey 

Primary Research and/or Clinical Focus of Laboratory

Physiology of the human circadian pacemaker and its entrainment by light

Temporal dynamics in neuroendocrine systems

Homeostatic and circadian factors in the regulation of sleep and neurobehavioral function 

Application of circadian physiology to occupational medicine/health policy

Countermeasures to circadian misalignment  and sleep deprivation (shift work, jet-lag, sustained and continuous operations. space missions)

Cognitive Function, sleep loss and circadian rhythms.  

Sleep disorders medicine

Control of the pharyngeal musculature during wakefulness and sleep/pathophysiology of sleep apnea

Control of ventilation during wakefulness and sleep

Circadian rhythms of ventilatory control and cardio-pulmonary disorders

Mathematical modeling of the human circadian pacemaker, its response to light, its effects on sleep, performance and mood 

Modeling and computational simulation of mechanical behaviors in human upper airway, such as the tissue deformation and airway collapse during the obstructive sleep apnea

Technical Capabilities of Lab        

5 temporal isolation suites in the Intensive Physiological Monitoring Unit of the GCRC (Inpatient studies)

8 bedroom laboratory (six are complete time-isolation suites for circadian studies)

6 bedroom Sleep Disorders Clinic (all time-isolation suites)

9 beds on general GCRC equipped for sleep records, including 5 equipped for intensive respiratory monitoring

16 Digital EEG acquisition systems, {7 Healthdyne (Alice III) and 9 Nicolet (Ultrasom) systems}

4 standard polygraphs (Nihon-Kohden 10 and 21 channel)

21 Vitaport digital ambulatory sleep recorders (25-Channel)

10 laser printers (2 color), 2 flatbed scanners, 6 CD-R and 3 optical disk archival systems

Laboratory and ambulatory core body temperature and light monitors, 52 wrist actigraphs/35 actiwatch-L recorders 

Pulmonary function Testing

Respiratory Testing

Autonomic Reflexes 

Primary Training Focus

Human (Basic)

Human (Clinical Research)

Human (Clinical Practice)

Other Training Opportunities       

Program for Training in Sleep, Circadian and Respiratory Neurobiology

Division of Sleep Medicine, Harvard Medical School

221 Longwood Avenue, Suite 438

 

For information: Tel (617) 732-4154, Fax (617) 732-4015

Email: casey_bauer@hms.harvard.edu

Representative Publications For the Last Five Years

Barger, L.K., Greenleaf, J.E., Baldini, F. and Huff, D. (1995). Effects of Space Missions on the Human Immune System: A Meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, Training, and Rehabilitation, 5, 293-310.

Barger LK, Fuller CA. Gender differences in the responses of rhesus  monkeys to 2G. Proceedings of the First Biennial Space Biomedical Investigator's Workshop; 1999 Jan 11-13; League City, TX., 538-540.

Boivin DB, Duffy JF, Kronauer RE, Czeisler CA. Dose-response     relationships for resetting of human circadian clock by light. Nature 1996; 379:540-542.

Boivin DB, Czeisler CA, et al. Complex interaction of the sleep-wake cycle and circadian phase modulates mood in healthy subjects. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1997;54: 145-152.

Cajochen C, Khalsa SBS, Wyatt JK, Czeisler CA, Dijk DJ. EEG and ocular correlates of neurobehavioral decrements associated with circadian melatonin secretory phase and sleep loss. Am. J. Physiol. 1999; 277:R640-R649.

Cajochen C, Zeitzer JM, Czeisler CA, Dijk, DJ. Dose-response relationship for light intensity and ocular and electroencephalographic correlates of human alertness. Behav. Brain Res. 2000, 115:75-83

Czeisler CA, Duffy JF, Shanahan TL, Brown EN, Mitchell JF, Rimmer, DW, Ronda JM, et al. Stability, precision, and near 24-hour period of the human circadian pacemaker. Science 1999; 284:2177-2181.

Czeisler CA, Wright Jr. KP. Influence of light on circadian rhythmicity in humans. In: Regulation of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms (Turek FW, Zee PC, eds), 1999; pp 149-180. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Dijk DJ, Shanahan TL, Duffy JF, Ronda JM, Czeisler CA. Variation of electroencephalographic activity during non-rapid eye movement sleep with phase of circadian melatonin rhythm in humans. J. Physiol. (Lond) 1997; 505:851-858.

Dijk DJ, Duffy JF, Riel E, Shanahan TL, Czeisler CA. Aging and the circadian and homeostatic regulation of sleep during scheduled desynchrony of rest, melatonin and temperature rhythms. J. Physiol. (Lond) 1999; 516:611-627.

Douse MA, and White DP. Serotonergic effects on hypoglossal neural activity and reflex responses. Brain Res. 1996; 726:213-232.

Duffy JF, Dijk DJ, Hall EF, Czeisler CA. Relationship of endogenous circadian melatonin and temperature rhythms to self-reported preference for morning or evening activity. J. Investig. Med. 1999; 47:141-150.

Duffy JF, Rimmer DW, Czeisler CA. Association of intrinsic circadian period with morningness- eveningness, usual wake time, and circadian phase. Behav. Neurosci. 115 (4):in press, 2001.

Fogel RB, Malhotra A, Shea SA, Edwards JK and White DP. Reduced genioglossal activity following upper airway anesthesia in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. J Appl Physiol, 2000; 88: 1346-1354.

Fogel R, White DP. Obstructive Sleep Apnea. In: Advances in Internal Medicine; Ed. Dzau VJ and Schrier R, Mosby-Yearbook Inc. 2000; Vol 45: p 351-389.

Gronfier, C., Luthringer, R., Follenius, M., Schaltenbrand, N., Macher, J. P., Muzet, A. and Brandenberger, G. A quantitative evaluation of the relationships between growth hormone secretion and delta wave electroencephalographic activity during normal sleep and after enrichment in delta waves. Sleep, 1996, 19: 817-824.

Gronfier, C., Simon, C., Piquard, F., Ehrhart, J. and Brandenberger, G. Neuroendocrine processes underlying ultradian sleep regulation in man. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 1999, 84: 2686-2690.

Horowitz, T. S. & Wolfe, J. M. (2001). Search For Multiple Targets: Remember the targets, forget the search. Perception & Psychophysics, 63 (2), 272-285.

Horowitz, T. S., Cade, B., Wolfe, J.M., & Czeisler, C. A. (in press) Efficacy of Bright Light and Scheduling of Sleep/Darkness In Alleviating Circadian Maladaptation to Night Work. American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology & Metabolism.

Huang Y, Rumschitzki D, Chien S, and Weinbaum S. A Fiber Matrix Model for the Filtration through Fenestral Pores in a Compressible Arterial Intima. Am J Physiol 1997; 272 (Heart and Circulatory Physiology: 41): H2023-H2039. 

Huang Y, Doerschuk CM, and Kamm RD. Computational Modeling of RBC and Neutrophil Transit through the Pulmonary Capillaries. J  Appl Physiol 2001; 90 (2): 545-564.

Jewett ME, Rimmer DW, Duffy JF, Klerman EB, Kronauer RE, Czeisler CA. The human circadian pacemaker is sensitive to light throughout subjective day without evidence of transients. Am. J. Physiol. 1997;273: R1800-R1809.

Jewett ME, Kronauer RE. Interactive mathematical models of subjective alertness and cognitive throughput in humans. J. Biol. Rhythms. 1999;14:588-597.

Kelly TL, Neri DF, Grill JT, Tyman D, Hunt PD, Dijk DJ, Shanahan TL, Czeisler CA. Nonentrained circadian rhythms of melatonin in submariners scheduled to an 18-hour day. J. Biol. Rhythms 1999; 13:190-196.

Klerman EB, Dijk DJ, Kronauer RE, Czeisler, CA. Simulations of light effects on the human circadian pacemaker: implication for assessment of intrinsic period. Am. J. Physiol, 1996; 270: R271-R282.

Klerman EB, Rimmer DW, Dijk DJ, Kronauer RE, Rizzo III JF, Czeisler CA. Non-photic entrainment of the human circadian pacemaker. Am. J. Physiol. 1998;274: R991-R996.

Kronauer RE, Forger DB, Jewett ME. Quantifying human circadian Pacemaker response to brief, extended, and repeated light stimuli over the phototopic range. J. Biol. Rhythms 1999, 14: 6;500-515. 

Ling L, Olson EB Jr, Vidruk EH, Mitchell GS. Integrated phrenic responses to carotid afferent stimulation in adult rats following perinatal hyperoxia. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 500.3: 787-796, 1997.

Ling L, Olson EB Jr, Vidruk EH, Mitchell GS. Slow recovery of impaired phrenic responses to hypoxia following perinatal hyperoxia in rats. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 511.2: 599-603, 1998.

Lockley SW, Skene DJ, Tabandeh H, Bird AC, Defrance R, Arendt J. Relationship between melatonin rhythms and visual loss in the blind. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 1997;82: 3763-3770.

Lockley SW, Skene DJ, James K, Thapan K, Wright J, Arendt J. Melatonin administration can entrain the free-running circadian system of blind subjects. J. Endocrinol. 2000;164(1):R1-6.

Malhotra A, Fogel RB, Edwards JK, Shea SA and White DP. Local mechanisms drive genioglossal muscle activation in obstructive sleep apnea. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., 2000; 161: 1746-1749.

Malhotra A, Pillar G, Fogel RB, Beauregard J, Edwards JK, Slamowitz DI, Shea SA and White DP. Negative pharyngeal pressure drives genioglossal but not tensor palatini muscle activity. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., 2000,161:1746-1749.

McEvoy RD, Popovic RM, Saunders NA, and White DP. Effects of sustained and repetitive isocapneic hypoxia on ventilation and genioglossal and diaphragmatic EMGs. J Appl Physiol 1996; 81:866-875.

Pillar G, Malhotra A, Fogel R, Beauregard J, Schnall R and White DP. Airway mechanics and ventilation in response to resistive loading during sleep: Influence of gender. Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med, , 2000, 162:1627-1632.

Pillar G, Malhotra A, Fogel RB, Beauregard J, Edwards JK, Slamowitz DI, Shea SA, White DP. Upper airway muscle responsiveness to rising PCO2 during non-REM sleep. J. Appl. Physiol., 2000, 89:1275-1282.

Popovic RM and White DP, Upper airway muscle activity in normal women: Influence of hormonal status. J. Appl. Physiol. 1998; 84: 1055-1062.

Ritz-De Cecco A, Jewett ME, Wyatt JK, Kronauer RE, Czeisler CA, Dijk D-J. Plasma melatonin rhythm in humans during a 20-h forced desynchrony protocol. Sleep Research Online 1999; 2: 620

Shanahan TL, Kronauer R, Duffy J, Williams G, Czeisler CA. Melatonin rhythm observed throughout a three-cycle bright light stimulus designed to reset the human circadian pacemaker. J. Biol. Rhythms 1999; 14:237-253.

Shanahan T, Zeitzer J, Czeisler C. Resetting the melatonin rhythm with light in humans. J. Biol. Rhythms 1997;12:556-567.

Shea SA, Edwards J and White DP. Effect of wake-sleep transitions and REM sleep in pharyngeal muscle response to negative pressure in human. J Physiol (Lond) 1999; 520 (3): 897-908.

Shea SA, Akahoshi T, Edwards J and White DP. IInfluence of chemoreceptor stimuli on genioglossal response to negative pressure in humans. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000, 162:559-565.

Slamowitz DI, Edwards JK, Chajek-Shaul T, White DP. The influence of a transmucosal cholinergic agonist on pharyngeal muscle activity. Sleep, 2000, 23:543-550.

Spengler CM, Czeisler CA, Shea SA. An endogenous circadian rhythm of respiratory control in humans. J. Physiol. (London) 2000, 526: 683-94.

Takahashi M, Fukuda H, Arito H. Brief naps during post-lunch rest: effects on alertness, performance, and autonomic balance. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1998;78:93-98.

Takahashi M, Arito H. Maintenance of alertness and performance by a brief nap after lunch under prior sleep deficit. Sleep 2000;23:813-819.

Waldstreicher J, Duffy JF, Brown EN, Rogacz S, Allan JS, Czeisler CA Gender differences in the temporal organization of prolactin (PLR) secretion: Evidence for a sleep-independent circadian rhythm of circulating prolactin levels. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996; 81: 1483-1487.

White DP, Edwards JK and Shea SA. Local reflex mechanisms: Influence on basal genioglossal muscle activation in normal subjects. Sleep 1998; 21(7): 719-728.

White, DP. Central Sleep Apnea. In: Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 3rd Edition; Ed. Kryger M, W.B. Saunders Company, 2000 pp. 827-839

Winkelman JW. The evoked heart rate response to periodic leg movements of sleep. Sleep 1999;22:575-580.

Winkelman JW. Schizophrenia, obesity and obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Psychiatry, 2000;61:8-11.

Wright KP Jr., Hughes, RJ, Kronauer, RE, Dijk, DJ, Czeisler, CA. Intrinsic near-24-hour pacemaker period determines limits of circadian entrainment to a weak synchronizer in humans. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 2001; 98:14027-14032.

Wright KP Jr., Czeisler, CA. Absence of Circadian Phase Resetting in Response to Bright Light Behind the Knees. Science. 2002; 297:571 Online Text http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/reprint/297/5581/571.pdf 

Supporting Online Material http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/data/297/5581/571/DC1/1 

Wyatt JK, Ritz-De Cecco A, Czeisler CA, Dijk D-J. Circadian temperature and melatonin rhythms, sleep, and neurobehavioural function in humans living in a 20-h day. Am. J. Physiol. 1999; 277:R1152-R1163.

Zeitzer JM, Dijk DJ, Kronauer RE, Brown EN, Czeisler CA. Sensitivity of the human circadian pacemaker to nocturnal light: melatonin phase resetting and suppression. J. Physiol. (London) 2000, 526:695-702.

Zeitzer JK, Ayas NT, Shea SA, Brown R, Czeisler CA. Absence of detectable melatonin and preservation of cortisol and thyrotropin rhythms in tetraplegia. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2000, 85:2189-2196.

www link for the Lab

www.partners.org/cgi-view/homepage.py?

dept_id=8264&rso_abbrev=bwh

www.hms/harvard.edu/sleep/dsm

Faculty Research Interests

Najib Ayas M.D. is an Instructor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School and a staff physician at Sleep HealthCenters in Newton. Dr. Ayas is interested in clinical research studies concerning the health and quality of life consequences of sleep disorders.

Charles A. Czeisler, Ph.D., M.D. is Director for the Division of Sleep Medicine at the Harvard Medical School, Chief of the Division of Sleep Medicine at Brigham and Women's Hospital and Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School. Dr. Czeisler’s research focuses on understanding the neurobiology of the human circadian pacemaker and applying that knowledge to clinical medicine and occupational health. His work has examined how various neuroendocrine, metabolic, thermoregulatory, and behavioral rhythms (including sleep duration and structure) are regulated by the output of the circadian pacemaker. His current research focuses on four main areas. The first is the examination of the role of melatonin in the organization of sleep and circadian rhythms. The second is the neural mechanism by which light is received by the SCN. The third area is further evaluating the physiological mechanism underlying photic resetting of the human circadian pacemaker, including issues related to timing, duration, wavelength and intensity. The fourth involves evaluation of how circadian and homeostatic processes interact to regulate sleep and neurobiological function during wakefulness. Other ongoing research in the lab includes examining the effect of exercise on the circadian pacemaker and functional application of our research to shift-workers. Dr. Czeisler co-teaches a molecular and cellular biology course at Harvard University entitled "Circadian Biology: From Molecular Oscillators to Sleep Regulation". Dr. Czeisler is currently funded through grants from the NIH, NASA, the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, the United States Air Force, and industry.

Jeanne F. Duffy, M.B.A., Ph.D. is an Instructor in Medicine at Harvard Medical School. Dr. Duffy is a neuroscientist/physiologist whose research interests include age-related changes in circadian rhythms and inter-individual differences in circadian rhythms. Her research includes studies of the relationship between the timing of circadian rhythms and the sleep-wake cycle in healthy young and older adults; understanding the phase-dependent and intensity-dependent effects of light on the circadian timing system in young and older adults; and understanding how the circadian timing system contributes to sleep-wake timing and morningness-eveningness. Dr. Duffy has current support from the National Institutes of Health.

Robert B. Fogel, MD is an Assistant Physician in the Divisions of Sleep Disorders and Pulmonary/Critical Medicine at Brigham and Women's Hospital (and the Sleep HealthCenters in Newton Center), and an Instructor in Medicine at Harvard Medical School. Dr. Fogel is a pulmonologist with an active interest in understanding sleep disorders and the respiratory control system. His research program includes studies of the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea, specifically related to the effects of androgens and obesity on the anatomy and physiology of the upper airway. Dr. Fogel is board certified in internal medicine, pulmonary disease and critical care medicine and sees patients with sleep disorders at our Sleep Health Center at 1400 Center Street in Newton Center Dr. Fogel currently receives research support from the NIH and the National Sleep Foundation.

Todd S. Horowitz, Ph.D. is Instructor in Ophthalmology at Brigham & Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School. Dr. Horowitz is a cognitive psychologist who is interested in the relationship between circadian rhythms and cognitive function in humans, particularly with respect to selective attention. Dr. Horowitz's research is currently funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

Yaqi Huang, Ph.D. is an Instructor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women's Hospital. Dr. Huang is a biomedical engineer and a scientist in biomechanics. His current research focuses on the modeling and computational simulation of the air flow, stress distribution, tissue deformation, and the obstruction in upper airway during the obstructive sleep apnea, and the investigation of the effects of the anatomical structure, tissue mechanical property, and muscle activity on the upper airway collapsibility. Dr. Huang is currently funded through the grants from NIH, Sleep Medicine Education and Research Foundation, and industry.

Megan E. Jewett, Ph.D. is an Associate Biomathematician at the Brigham and Women's Hospital and an Instructor in Medicine at Harvard Medical School. Dr. Jewett is a biomedical engineer whose research interests include the human circadian pacemaker, the sleep-wake homeostat, and their combined influence on neurobehavioral function. Her research can be divided into four main areas. The first is to understand the relative roles of homeostatic (sleep/wake) and circadian factors in the regulation of sleep and neurobehavioral functioning. The second is to understand the physiology of the circadian pacemaker and its entrainment by light. The third is to develop mathematical models of the interaction of homeostatic and circadian components of human neurobehavioral functioning, and the fourth is to further refine and validate mathematical models of the influence of light on circadian phase, amplitude and period. A component of each of these research efforts is to develop countermeasures to impairment of neurobehavioral functioning due to sleep loss and circadian misalignment. Dr. Jewett is currently funded through grants from the NIH, NASA, the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, and the United States Air Force.

Elizabeth B. Klerman, M.D., Ph.D. is an Instructor in Medicine and Associate Physician at Brigham and Women s' Hospital. She is an active investigator in the BWH General Clinical Research Center. Her research focuses on the areas of (i) circadian rhythms and sleep disorders in blind persons; (ii) the homeostatic drive for sleep in older and younger individuals and the possibility of changes in homeostatic drive as a cause of sleep complaints in older persons; (iii) circadian rhythms and the effects of posture in endocrinology; and (iv) mathematical modeling of the circadian system and markers of its function. The experiments exploring the homeostatic drive of younger and older individuals are generative exciting results about the sleep need of healthy individuals and the effect of the lack of needed sleep on sleepiness and cognitive performance. Current collaboration efforts involve the study of circadian rhythms and sleep in women with fibromyalgia; the effect of constant posture on the circadian rhythms on calcium metabolism; and the circadian rhythms of potassium and hormone secretion in patients with specific types of hypertension.  Dr. Klerman's interest in mathematical modeling of biologic systems led her to systematically and mathematically explore the effects of different patterns of light exposure on observed circadian rhythms. The results have implications for the design and analysis of future circadian experiments as well as reinterpretation of earlier studies. She has also reanalyzed data to demonstrate that a method of analysis frequently used in circadian rhythm research yields inaccurate results. She is currently analyzing melatonin, core body temperature and cortisol data, three markers of the circadian system, for sources of variability so that an assessment of their relative accuracy as markers of circadian rhythms can be quantified.

Sat Bir S. Khalsa, Ph.D. is an Instructor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women’s Hospital. Dr. Khalsa’s sleep research interest is in the field of behavioral treatment of insomnia, specifically the investigation of the effectiveness of yoga practices such as meditation, physical yoga postures, and yoga breathing techniques in treating insomnia. Dr. Khalsa is also interested in the role of autonomic function in sleep, wakefulness, and sleep disorders, and in the role of biological rhythms in sleep. Dr. Khalsa is currently funded through the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine of the National Institutes of Health.

Richard E. Kronauer, Ph.D., is the Gordon McKay Professor of Mechanical Engineering in the Division of Applied Sciences at Harvard University, and at the Brigham and Women's Hospital. Dr. Kronauer’s has been engaged in the mathematical analysis of dynamic systems for over 40 years. A representation of the human circadian system as a pair of coupled oscillators was published in 1982. A detailed model for the human circadian pacemaker and its response to extended photic stimuli (1990) has been extensively validated. Current work is aimed at describing accurately the pacemaker response to temporal light/dark patterns where episodes duration’s are only a few minutes in length. Newly developed models combine circadian and homeostatic influences in human neurobehavioral measures (alertness and performance). Currently under study are models of the physiological processes related to the acute generation and decay of fos gene products, and the effects of circadian rhythms on those processes. Since data related to circadian rhythms typically display several rhythms simultaneously a special effort has been devoted to the analysis of time series with multiple periodic components.

Liming Ling, PhD is an Assistant Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School. Dr. Ling is a Neurophysiologist and has an active interest in understanding neural control of respiration and neural plasticity. His current research project focuses on intermittent hypoxia-induced plasticity in respiratory motor control. His research interests include the relationship between intermittent hypoxia and the functional performance of the hypoxic ventilatory control system, the age effect on this hypoxia-induced ventilatory plasticity, and neuronal/cellular mechanisms underlying this form of plasticity. His lab is basically an electrophysiological lab, conducting both neurophysiological studies (on anesthetized animals) and ventilatory measurement (on awake animals) with a plethysmograph. Dr. Ling currently receives research support from the NIH.

Atul Malhotra, MD, FRCPC is an Instructor in Medicine at Harvard Medical School and an Attending Physician in the Sleep Medicine Division (Brigham and Women's Hospital) and Pulmonary and Critical Care Divisions (Brigham and Women's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital). Dr. Malhotra's research focuses on two major areas in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The first involves studies of the upper airway dilator muscles, specifically the roles of mechanoreceptive and chemoreceptive stimuli in activating these muscles. The second group of studies involves the influences of aging, gender and obesity on upper airway structure and function. By attempting to understand how each of these variables influences upper airway biomechanics, he hopes to learn how these epidemiological risk factors predispose to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Dr. Malhotra's research is supported by the American Heart Association and the Medical Research Council of Canada.

Steven A. Shea, PhD is an Associate Director for the Sleep Disorders Program at Brigham and Women's Hospital (and the Sleep Health Center in Newton Center), Assistant Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School and Assistant Professor in the Physiology Program at the Harvard School of Public Health. Dr. Shea is a physiologist with an active interest in understanding sleep disorders and the respiratory control system. His research program includes studies of the circadian rhythm of ventilatory control, the circadian and sleep/wake aspects of nocturnal asthma and the anatomy and physiology of the upper airway during obstructive sleep apnea. Dr. Shea teaches a graduate seminar course for the Harvard Extension School on the Physiology of Sleep. Dr. Shea currently receives research support from the NIH.

David P. White, MD is the Co-Director for the Division of Sleep Medicine at the Harvard Medical School, Director for the Sleep Disorders Program at Brigham and Women's Hospital, Associate Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School, Medical Director for Sleep Health Centers, LLC, and past-president of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Dr. White is board-certified in internal medicine, pulmonary disease, critical care medicine and sleep disorders medicine. He sees patients with sleep disorders at Sleep HealthCenters at 1400 Center Street in Newton Center. Dr. White has an active interest in understanding the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea and other respiratory disorders of sleep. He has evolved a substantial research program addressing these areas of interest. Dr. White is currently funded principally by the NIH, but has industry support as well.

John W. Winkelman, MD, PhD is an Associate Director for the Sleep Disorders Program at Brigham and Women's Hospital, Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School and the Medical Director for Sleep HealthCenters in Newton Center. Dr. Winkelman is board-certified in psychiatry and sleep disorders medicine. He sees patients with sleep disorders at our Sleep Health Center at 1400 Center Street in Newton Center. Dr. Winkelman has an active interest in understanding limb movement disorders of sleep, restless legs syndrome, insomnia, and parasomnias.

Kenneth P. Wright Jr., Ph.D. is an Associate Neuroscientist at the Brigham and Women's Hospital, Instructor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School. Dr. Wright is a behavioral neuroscientist/psychologist whose research interests include understanding the physiology of the human circadian pacemaker and sleep-wake homeostasis and applying that knowledge to improving alertness, performance and health. His research can be divided into three main areas. The first is to understand the contribution of the human circadian pacemaker and of sleep homeostasis in the regulation of brain function and behavior. A component of this research effort is to develop countermeasures to sleep loss and circadian misalignment. The second area explores factors specific to women that influence sleep-wake and circadian systems. The third research area is aimed at understanding the fundamental neurophysiologic mechanisms of circadian entrainment in humans.  Dr. Wright’s research is currently funded through grants from the NIH, the National Space Biomedical Research Institute and the United States Air Force.